Magnetic separation of ferrous fractions linked to improved bioleaching of metals from waste-to-energy incinerator bottom ash (IBA): a green approach

  • Sandeep PandaEmail author
Research Article


Ferrous fractions in incinerated bottom ash (IBA) are linked to lower metal dissolution. In the present study, a novel eco-friendly biotechnological approach has been tested for multi-metal leaching using meso-acidophilic Fe2+/S° oxidizing bacterial consortium from magnetically separated IBA, owing to the inherent property of IBA to release Fe2+. Comprehensive lab-scale studies, first-of-its-kind, considered all the potential elements to understand targeted metal dissolutions from the sample under differential conditions. Concentrations of metals, Al > Ti > Ni > Zn > Cu, as analyzed by ICP-OES, were targeted to be bioleached. XRD analysis indicated the sample to be amorphous with magnetite (Fe3O4) and iron (Fe) forming major phases in the magnetic part (IBAM) and titano-magnetite (Fe3–x. TixO4) and iron (Fe) for the nonmagnetic part (IBAN). The study indicated that 73.98% Cu, 98.68% Ni, 59.09% Zn, 58.84% Al, and 92.85% Ti could be leached from IBAM when the bioleaching system operates at pH 1.5, 5% pulp density for 8 days. Under similar conditions, within 6 days, 37.55% Cu, 87.99% Ni, 45.03% Zn, 40.72% Al, and 63.97% Ti could be leached from IBAN. Two routes were identified and the mechanism of action has been proposed for the leaching of metals.


Pretreatment Iron-sulfur oxidizing bacteria Acidophiles Waste incineration Secondary resource 



The author kindly acknowledges IZAYDAS Inc. Company General Directorate and Project Chief Onur Uludağ for supplying the samples. Also, sincere thanks are extended to Prof. Nevzat Ozgur for the ICP-OES and XRD analysis along with interpretation of the characterization results, Prof. Ata Akcil for the valuable discussions, and PhD candidates Ismail Agcasulu and Seydo Dembele for their kind support during preparation and analysis of the samples in the laboratory.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mining Engineering, Mineral-Metal Recovery and Recycling (MMR&R) Research Group, Mineral Processing DivisionSuleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey

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