The influence of processing and clarifier agents on the concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in pekmez (a grape molasses-like syrup)

  • Ali Heshmati
  • Sabah Ghadimi
  • Akram Ranjbar
  • Amin Mousavi KhaneghahEmail author
Research Article


The changes in some potentially toxic elements (PTEs) including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) during pekmez (grape molasses-like syrup) processing and the utilization of various types of clarifiers (white soil, bentonite, and gelatin) in two levels (1.5 and 3% w/w) were analyzed. The average concentrations of Pb, Cd, As, Fe, Zn, and Cu in grape samples were measured as 0.055 ± 0.005, 0.030 ± 0.002, 0.044 ± 0.002, 2.882 ± 0.013, 2.372 ± 0.088, and 1.194 ± 0.01 μg g−1. During pekmez production, the range of changes in Pb, Cd, As, Fe, Zn, and Cu was −43.38% to 40.25%, −55.49% to 0.23%, −76.15% to 1.80%, −74.15% to 58.47%, −40.55% to −18.12%, and −83.16% to −21.39%, respectively. The effect of the clarification process on the PTEs depended on the type and concentration of both PTE and clarifier agent used while the incorporation of gelatin resulted in a significant reduction in all of PT.

Graphical abstract


Pekmez Grape Contamination Unit operation PTEs Fate 



This study (plan no. 9605103036) has been funded by the Vice-Chancellor of Research and Technology of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

11356_2020_7607_MOESM1_ESM.docx (20 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 19 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, Nutrition Health Research CenterHamadan University of Medical SciencesHamadanIran
  2. 2.Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food EngineeringUniversity of Campinas (UNICAMP)CampinasBrazil

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