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The influence of processing and clarifier agents on the concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in pekmez (a grape molasses-like syrup)

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Abstract

The changes in some potentially toxic elements (PTEs) including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) during pekmez (grape molasses-like syrup) processing and the utilization of various types of clarifiers (white soil, bentonite, and gelatin) in two levels (1.5 and 3% w/w) were analyzed. The average concentrations of Pb, Cd, As, Fe, Zn, and Cu in grape samples were measured as 0.055 ± 0.005, 0.030 ± 0.002, 0.044 ± 0.002, 2.882 ± 0.013, 2.372 ± 0.088, and 1.194 ± 0.01 μg g−1. During pekmez production, the range of changes in Pb, Cd, As, Fe, Zn, and Cu was −43.38% to 40.25%, −55.49% to 0.23%, −76.15% to 1.80%, −74.15% to 58.47%, −40.55% to −18.12%, and −83.16% to −21.39%, respectively. The effect of the clarification process on the PTEs depended on the type and concentration of both PTE and clarifier agent used while the incorporation of gelatin resulted in a significant reduction in all of PT.

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Acknowledgments

This study (plan no. 9605103036) has been funded by the Vice-Chancellor of Research and Technology of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services.

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Correspondence to Amin Mousavi Khaneghah.

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Heshmati, A., Ghadimi, S., Ranjbar, A. et al. The influence of processing and clarifier agents on the concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in pekmez (a grape molasses-like syrup). Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020) doi:10.1007/s11356-020-07607-9

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Keywords

  • Pekmez
  • Grape
  • Contamination
  • Unit operation
  • PTEs
  • Fate