An environmentally friendly strategy for determining organic ultraviolet filters in seawater using liquid-phase microextraction with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry
Benzophenone-3, benzophenone-8, and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor are used in sunscreens because they can protect the skin from UV radiation. The widespread use of organic UV filters may mean that they directly or indirectly enter seawater during recreational activities or through sewage discharge. In this study, a simple and efficient method using 1-octanol:isooctane (2:8, v/v) as an extraction solvent and liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry was developed to measure trace levels of organic UV filters in seawater samples. This proposed method proved to be a highly sensitive, low-cost, and green analytical tool that requires minimal sample preparation. The method was validated and it exhibited favorable performance as well as acceptable accuracy (67 to 115%), precision (2.1 to 7.3%), coefficients of determination (0.9952 < R2 < 0.9987), sensitivity (limits of quantification [3.3 to 5.7 ng L−1]), and an acceptable matrix effect (87 to 99%). This methodology was successfully applied to analyze seawater taken from Kenting National Park located in the Hengchun Peninsula of southern Taiwan. Benzophenone-3 was detected at all sampling sites and at a higher concentration than the other organic UV filters. The highest concentration of benzophenone-3 was 514.6 ng L−1 in a sample collected from Baisha Beach.
KeywordsOrganic ultraviolet filter Green extraction solvent Mass spectrometry Seawater Kenting National Park
Conception and design of study: Wei-Hsien Wang; acquisition of data: Te-An Kung, Shu-Hui Lee, Ting-Yu Liu, Ping-Chang Ku; analysis and/or interpretation of data: Ting-Yu Liu, Wei-Hsien Wang, Ping-Chang Ku; drafting the manuscript: Wei-Hsien Wang, Te-An Kung; revising the manuscript critically for important intellectual content: Wei-Hsien Wang, Te-An Kung.
This research was supported by grants from the Ministry of Science and Technology [grant number MOST 106–2611-M-110-014].
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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