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Assessment of phytoremediation potential of native plant species naturally growing in a heavy metal-polluted saline–sodic soil

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Abstract

Many areas throughout the world, mainly arid and semi-arid regions, are simultaneously affected by salinity stress and heavy metal (HM) pollution. Phytoremediation of such environments needs suitable plants surviving under those combined stresses. In the present study, native species naturally growing under an extreme condition, around Qaleh-Zari copper mine located in the eastern part of Iran, with HM-contaminated saline–sodic soil, were identified to find suitable plant species for phytoremediation. For this purpose, the accumulation of HMs (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in the root and shoot (stem and leaf) of the plants and their surrounding soils was determined to find their main phytoremediation strategies: phytoextraction or phytostabilization. Seven native species surviving in such extreme condition were found, including Launaea arborescens (Batt.) Murb, Artemisia santolina Schrenk, Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss, Zygophyllum eurypterum Boiss. & Buhse, Peganum harmala L., Pteropyrum olivieri Jaub. & Spach, and Aerva javanica (Burm. f.) Juss. ex Schult. Evaluation of phytoremediation potential of the identified species based on the calculated HM bioconcentration in roots, HM translocation from roots to shoots, and HM accumulation in the shoots revealed that all of the species were metal phytostabilizers rather than hyperaccumulators. Therefore, these native species can be used for phytostabilization in the HM-contaminated saline soils to prevent HMs entering the uncontaminated areas and groundwater. Compared with the biennial low-biomass hyperaccumulators, some native species such as Z. eurypterum and A. javanica may have more economic value for phytoremediation because of a significant accumulation of HMs in their relatively higher biomass.

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Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the research council of the University of Birjand for financial support under contract number 1395/d/23532.

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Correspondence to Seyed Mousa Mousavi Kouhi.

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Mousavi Kouhi, S.M., Moudi, M. Assessment of phytoremediation potential of native plant species naturally growing in a heavy metal-polluted saline–sodic soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-07578-6

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Keywords

  • Extreme environment
  • Halophyte
  • Metal contamination
  • Phytoextraction
  • Phytostabilization
  • Salinity