Lung injury caused by exposure to the gaseous fraction of exhaust from biomass combustion (cashew nut shells): a mice model

  • Daniel Silveira SerraEmail author
  • Karla Camila Lima de Souza
  • Soujanya Talapala Naidu
  • Jéssica Rocha de Lima
  • Fladimir de Lima Gondim
  • Maria Diana Moreira Gomes
  • Rinaldo dos Santos Araújo
  • Mona Lisa Moura de Oliveira
  • Francisco Sales Ávila Cavalcante
Research Article


Currently, to reduce the use of nonrenewable energy sources in energy matrices, some industries have already incorporated biomass as a source of energy for their processes. Additionally, filters are used in an attempt to retain the particulate matter present in exhaust gases. In this work, the emission gases of a cashew nut shell (CNS) combustion reactor and the deleterious effects on the respiratory system of mice exposed to gaseous fraction present in CNS emissions (GF-CNS) are analyzed. The system for CNS combustion is composed of a cylindrical stainless steel burner, and exhaust gases generated by CNS combustion were directed through a chimney to a system containing two glass fiber filters to retain all the PM present in the CNS exhaust and, posteriorly, were directed to a mice exposure chamber. The results show changes in the variables of respiratory system mechanics (G, H, CST, IC, and PV loop area) in oxidative stress (SOD, CAT, and NO2), as well as in the histopathological analysis and lung morphometry (alveolar collapse, PMN cells, mean alveolar diameter, and BCI). Through our results, it has been demonstrated that even with the use of filters by industries for particulate material retention, special attention should still be given to the gaseous fraction that is released into the environment.


Pollution Biomass Cashew nut shells Combustion Pulmonary toxicology 


Author contributions

DS and FSA: conception and design of the study; DS, KLC, SN, JR, FL, MDM, RS, and MLM: data collection and analyses; DS and FSA: wrote the manuscript. All the authors edited and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Funding information

The authors are highly thankful to CAPES – Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education for the financial support through scholarship.

Compliance with ethical standards

All animals received humane care, and the experiments complied with the following guidelines: ARRIVE; the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978); and regulations issued by the National Council for Controlling Animal Experimentation, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (CONCEA/MCTI), Brazil. All animal use and care procedures were previously approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the State University of Ceará.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Silveira Serra
    • 1
    Email author
  • Karla Camila Lima de Souza
    • 2
  • Soujanya Talapala Naidu
    • 2
  • Jéssica Rocha de Lima
    • 3
  • Fladimir de Lima Gondim
    • 2
  • Maria Diana Moreira Gomes
    • 2
  • Rinaldo dos Santos Araújo
    • 3
  • Mona Lisa Moura de Oliveira
    • 1
  • Francisco Sales Ávila Cavalcante
    • 1
  1. 1.Science and Technology CenterState University of CearáFortalezaBrazil
  2. 2.Institute of Biomedical SciencesState University of CearáFortalezaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry and EnvironmentFederal Institute of CearáFortalezaBrazil

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