Advertisement

Lung injury caused by exposure to the gaseous fraction of exhaust from biomass combustion (cashew nut shells): a mice model

  • Daniel Silveira SerraEmail author
  • Karla Camila Lima de Souza
  • Soujanya Talapala Naidu
  • Jéssica Rocha de Lima
  • Fladimir de Lima Gondim
  • Maria Diana Moreira Gomes
  • Rinaldo dos Santos Araújo
  • Mona Lisa Moura de Oliveira
  • Francisco Sales Ávila Cavalcante
Research Article

Abstract

Currently, to reduce the use of nonrenewable energy sources in energy matrices, some industries have already incorporated biomass as a source of energy for their processes. Additionally, filters are used in an attempt to retain the particulate matter present in exhaust gases. In this work, the emission gases of a cashew nut shell (CNS) combustion reactor and the deleterious effects on the respiratory system of mice exposed to gaseous fraction present in CNS emissions (GF-CNS) are analyzed. The system for CNS combustion is composed of a cylindrical stainless steel burner, and exhaust gases generated by CNS combustion were directed through a chimney to a system containing two glass fiber filters to retain all the PM present in the CNS exhaust and, posteriorly, were directed to a mice exposure chamber. The results show changes in the variables of respiratory system mechanics (G, H, CST, IC, and PV loop area) in oxidative stress (SOD, CAT, and NO2), as well as in the histopathological analysis and lung morphometry (alveolar collapse, PMN cells, mean alveolar diameter, and BCI). Through our results, it has been demonstrated that even with the use of filters by industries for particulate material retention, special attention should still be given to the gaseous fraction that is released into the environment.

Keywords

Pollution Biomass Cashew nut shells Combustion Pulmonary toxicology 

Notes

Author contributions

DS and FSA: conception and design of the study; DS, KLC, SN, JR, FL, MDM, RS, and MLM: data collection and analyses; DS and FSA: wrote the manuscript. All the authors edited and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Funding information

The authors are highly thankful to CAPES – Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education for the financial support through scholarship.

Compliance with ethical standards

All animals received humane care, and the experiments complied with the following guidelines: ARRIVE; the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978); and regulations issued by the National Council for Controlling Animal Experimentation, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (CONCEA/MCTI), Brazil. All animal use and care procedures were previously approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the State University of Ceará.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Aebi H (1984) Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzimol 105:121–126.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(84)05016-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arantes M.D.C., 2009. Variation of wood and coal characteristics of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucaylptus urophylla S. T. Blake (doctoral thesis). Department of Forestry Sciences, Federal University of Lavras, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  3. Bannister JV, Calabrese L (1987) Assays for superoxide dismutase. Methods Biochem Anal 32:279–312Google Scholar
  4. Barro R, Regueiro J, Llompart M, Garcia-Jares C (2009) Analysis of industrial contaminants in indoor air: part 1. Volatile organic compounds, carbonyl compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. J Chromatogr A 1216(3):540–566.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2008.10.117 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bates J. Lung mechanics an inverse modeling approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 2009.Google Scholar
  6. Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72(1–2):248–254.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (BATS) (1986) Immediate chemical analysis of charcoal. NBR 8112 5pGoogle Scholar
  8. Castro AHS, Araujo RS, Silva GMM (2013) Air quality - control parameters 42 and effects on human health: a brief review. Holos 5:107–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chorilli M, Michelin DC, Salgado HRN (2007) Laboratory animals: the mouse. Rev Ciênc Farm Básica Apl 28(1):11–23Google Scholar
  10. Damy, S.B., Camargo, R.S., Chammas, R., Figueiredo, L.F.P., 2010. Fundamental aspects of animal experimentation—applications in experimental surgery. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 56(1), 103–111Google Scholar
  11. Demirbas A (2004) Combustion characteristics of different biomass fuels. Prog Energy Combust Sci 30(2):219–230.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2003.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dias-Junior, C.A., Cau, S.B.A., Santos, J.E.T., 2008. Role of nitric oxide in the regulation of pulmonary circulation: physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic implications. J Bras Pneumol. 34(6), 412–419Google Scholar
  13. Diniz, J., 2005. Low temperature rice husk thermal conversion: bio-oil production and adsorbent silica-carbon residue (Doctoral thesis). Federal University of Santa Maria, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  14. Ekinci K (2011) Utilization of apple pruning residues as a source of biomass energy: a case study in Isparta province. Energy Explor Exploit 29(1):87–107.  https://doi.org/10.1260/0144-5987.29.1.87 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Escobar JA, Rubio MA, Lissi EA (1996) SOD and catalase inactivation by singlet oxygen and peroxyl radicals. Free Radic Biol Med 20(3):285–290.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(95)02037-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Figueiredo, F.A.B., 2009. Pyrolysis and gasification of cashew cashew: evaluation of gas, liquid and solid production (Doctoral tesis). State University of Campinas-São Paulo, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  17. Gaffney JS, Marley NA, Martin RS, Dixon RW, Reyes LG, Popp CJ (1997) Potential air quality effects of using ethanol-gasoline fuel blends: a field study in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Environ Sci Technol 31(11):3053–3061.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es9610388 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Green LC, Wagner DA, Glogowski J, Skipper PL, Wishnok JS, Tannenbaum SR. (1982). Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and [15N] nitrate in biological fluids. Analytical biochemistry 126(1):131-138.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(82)90118-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goyal PK, Verma P, Shaemam P, Parmar J, Agarwal A (2010) Evaluation of anti-cancer and antio-oxidative potential of Syzgium cumini against benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induced gastric carcinogenesis in mice. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev 11:753–758Google Scholar
  20. Hantos Z, Daroczy B, Suki B, Nagy S, Fredberg JJ (1992) Input impedance and peripheral inhomogeneity of dog lungs. J Appl Physiol 72(1):168–178.  https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1992.72.1.168 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hirai T, Mckeown KA, Gomes RF, Bates JH (1999) Effects of lung volume on lung and chest wall mechanics in rats. J Appl Physiol 86(1):16–21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2014.03.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (2013) Outdoor air pollution a leading environmental cause of cancer deaths. Press release. Available in: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php. Accessed 2 Aug 2019
  23. International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) (2018) Renewable energy capacity statistics. Available in: https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2018/Mar/IRENA_RE_Capacity_Statistics_2018.pdf. Accessed 2 May 2019
  24. Jayaraman K, Gokalp I, Petrus S, Belandria V, Bostyn S (2018) Energy recovery analysis from sugar cane bagasse pyrolysis and gasification using thermogravimetry, mass spectrometry and kinetic models. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 132:225–236.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2018.02.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Johnson-Delaney C (1996) Small rodents: rats. Florida, Exotic Companion Medicine Handbook, 200pGoogle Scholar
  26. Josino JB, Serra DS, Gomes MDM, Araújo RS, de Oliveira MLM, Cavalcante FSÁ (2017) Changes of respiratory system in mice exposed to PM4. 0 or TSP from exhaust gases of combustion of cashew nut shell. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 56:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2017.08.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Knudsen L, Weibel ER, Gundersen HJ, Weinstein FV, Ochs M (2010) Assessment of air space size characteristics by intercept (chord) measurement: an accurate and efficient stereological approach. J Appl Physiol 108(2):412–421.  https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01100.2009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kodgule R, Salvi S (2012) Exposure to biomass smoke as a cause for airway disease in women and children. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 12(1):82–90.  https://doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0b013e32834ecb65 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kotzias D, Koistinen K, Kephalopoulos S, Schlitt C, Carrer P, Maroni M, Jantunen M, Cochet C, Kirchner S, Lindvall T, McLaughlin J, Mølhave L, de Oliveira Fernandes E, Seife B (2005) INDEX project. Critical appraisal of the setting and implementation of indoor exposure limits in the EU. Final report. EUR 21590 EN. Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Physical and Chemical Exposure Unit, Ispra, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  30. Kwon HY, Choi SY, Won MH, Kang TC, Kang JH (2000) Oxidative modiccation and inactivation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase by 2,2P-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride. Biochim Biophys Acta 1543:69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lam MK, Lee KT, Mohamed AR (2012) Current status and challenges on microalgae-based carbon capture. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 10:456–469.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.07.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lima, E.A., Silva, H.D., Magalhães, W.L.E., Lavoranti, O.J., 2007. Individual characterization of Eucalyptus benthamii trees for energy use. Embrapa Research and Development Bulletin. Colombo. 35, 26 pGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu X, Durkes AC, Schrock W, Zheng W, Sivasankar MP (2018) Subacute acrolein exposure to rat larynx in vivo. Laryngoscope.  https://doi.org/10.1002/lary.27687
  34. Loivos LPP (2013) Treatment of fibrosing lung diseases. Pulmão. 22(1):46–50Google Scholar
  35. Luttrell WE, Thomas CJ (2007) Toxic tips: benzo(a)pyrene. Journal of Chemical Health & Safety 14(6):21–22.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchas.2007.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Malvisi, F., 2010. Study of the atmospheric pollution caused by the burning of fuel oil in boiler and selection of equipment of reduction of particulate matter in boiler flamotubular to national fuel oil as case study (Doctoral thesis). Institute of Technological Research of the State of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  37. Martinewski, A., Souza, N.L., Merusse, J.L.B., 2008. Influence of temperature and airflow on feed intake and weight gain in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) kept in microenvironmental system. Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. 45, 98–103.  https://doi.org/10.11606/S1413-95962008000700014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mazzoli-Rocha F, Carvalho GM, Lanzetti M, Valenca SS, Silva LF, Saldiva PH, Zin WA, Faffe DS (2014) Respiratory toxicity of repeated exposure to particles produced by traffic and sugar cane burning. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 191:106–113.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2013.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mgaya JE, Shombe GB, Masikane SC, Mlowe S, Mubofu EB, Revaprasadu N (2019) Cashew nut shell: a potential bio-resource for the production of green environmentally friendly chemicals, materials and fuels. Green Chem 00:1–3.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C8GC02972E CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nagato, L.K.S., 2007. Temporal monitoring of pulmonary function and histology in mice exposed to oil burning soot. Doctoral thesis. Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  41. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOH), 2003. Hydrocarbons aromatic: method 1501. 3, 1–7Google Scholar
  42. Neves TA, Protasio TP, Couto AM, Trugilho PF, Silva VO, Vieira CMM (2011) Evaluation of Eucalyptus clones in different locations, aiming at the production of charcoal. Brazilian Forest Research. Colombo. 31(68):319–330.  https://doi.org/10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.319 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Oliveira ATV, Nascimento AM, Andrade AM, Júnior AFD (2018) Physical-mechanical properties of briquettes produced from charcoal fines and waste of Pinus spp. Floresta. 48(4):513–522.  https://doi.org/10.5380/rf.v48i4.55028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Park J, Kim B, Son J, Lee JW (2018) Solvo-thermal in situ transesterification of wet spent coffee grounds for the production of biodiesel. Bioresour Technol 249:494–500.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.10.048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Paul S, Brattacharyya SS, Samaddar A, Boujedaini N, Khuda-Bukhsh AR (2011) Anticancer potentials of root extract Polygala senega against benzo[a]pyrene-induced lung cancer in mice. J Chin Integr Med 9(3):320–327.  https://doi.org/10.3736/jcim20110314 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pereira TV, Seye O (2014) Thermal physical characterization of local biomass. Cana 45(43):5–71. Available in: http://eventos.ufgd.edu.br/enepex/anais/arquivos/393.pdf. Accessed 2 Aug 2019
  47. Pighinelli AL, Schaffer MA, Boateng AA (2018) Utilization of eucalyptus for electricity production in Brazil via fast pyrolysis: a techno-economic analysis. Renew Energy 119:590–597.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2017.12.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Radmann EM, Camerini FV, Santos TD, Costa JAV (2011) Isolation and application of SOX and NOX resistant microalgae in biofixation of CO2 from thermoelectricity plants. Energy Convers Manag 52(10):3132–3136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2011.04.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ravichandran N, Suresh G, Ramesh B, Siva GV (2011) Fisetin, a novel flavonol attenuates benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Food Chem Toxicol 49(5):1141–1147.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.02.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sakae RS, Leme AS, Dolnikoff M, Pereira PM, do Patrocínio M, Warth TN, Zin WA, Saldiva PH, Martins MA (1994) Neonatal capsaicin treatment decreases airway and pulmonary tissue responsiveness to methacholine. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 266(1):L23–L29.  https://doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.1994.266.1.L23 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Salazar E, Knowles JH (1964) An analysis of pressure-volume characteristics of the lungs. J Appl Physiol 19(1):97–104.  https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1964.19.1.97 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Salvi SS, Barnes PJ (2009) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in non-smokers. Lancet 374(9691):733–743.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61303-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Saunders CR, Das SK, Ramesh A, Shockley DC, Mukherjee S (2006) Benzo(a)pyrene-induced acute neurotoxicity in the F-344 rat: role of oxidative stress. Appl Toxicol 26:427–438.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.1157 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Serra, D.S., Evangelista, J.S.A.M., Zin, W.A., Leal-Cardoso, J.H., Cavalcante, F.S.A., 2017. Changes in rat respiratory system produced by exposure to exhaust gases of combustion of glycerol. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 242, 80–85.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2017.04.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Shimizu Y, Nakatsuru Y, Ichinose M, Takahashi Y, Kume H, Mimura J, Fujii-Kuriyama Y, Ishikawa T (2000) Benzo[a]pyrene carcinogenicity is lost in mice lacking the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:779–782.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.97.2.779 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Silva R, Oyarzún M, Olloquequi J (2015) Pathogenic mechanisms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to biomass smoke exposure. Archivos de Bronconeumología (English Edition) 51(6):285–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arbr.2015.04.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sousa, F.W.D., 2011. Estimation of the exposure and risk of cancer to carbonyl compounds and btexts at gas stations in the city of Fortaleza-CE (Doctoral thesis). Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  58. Sun Y, Zwolinska E, Chmielewski AG (2015) Abatement technologies for high concentrations of NOx and SO2 removal from exhaust gases: a review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 46(2):119–142.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2015.1063334 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tesfaigzi Y, Singh SP, Foster JE, Kubatko J, Barr EB, Fine PM, Mcdonald JD, Hahn FF, Mauderly JL (2002) Health effects of subchronic exposure to low levels of wood smoke in rats. Toxicol Sci 65(1):115–125.  https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/65.1.115 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tesfaigzi Y, Mcsonald JD, Reed MD, Singh SP, Sanctis GT, Eynott PR, Hahn FF, Campen MJ, Mauderly JL (2005) Low-level subchronic exposure to wood smoke exacerbates inflammatory responses in allergic rats. Toxicol Sci 88(2):505–513.  https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfi317 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Thermo Scientific, 2012. Application note 20572: analysis of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a Hypersil green PAH columnGoogle Scholar
  62. Tutka P, Barczynski B, Arent K, Mosiewicz J, Mroz T, Wielosz M (2007) Different effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cunvulsions induced by nicotine in mice. Pharmacol Rep 59(3):259–267Google Scholar
  63. Uppal R, Bhat G, Eash C, Akato K (2013) Meltblown nanofiber media for enhanced quality factor. Fibers Polym 14:660–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (1999) Acetaldehyde. Available in: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/acetalde.html. Accessed 2 Oct 2019
  65. US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (2003) Toxicological review of acrolein (CAS N°. 107-02-8). US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  66. Wang T, Vinasco LM, Huang Y, Lang GD, Linares JD, Goonewardena SN, Grabavoy A, Samet JM, Geyn AS, Breysse PN, Lussier YA, Natarajan V, Garcia JGN (2008) Murine lung responses to ambient particulate matter: genomic analysis and influence on airway hyperresponsiveness. Environ Health Perspect 116(11):1500.  https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.11229 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Weibel, E.R., 1990. Morphometry: stereological theory and practical methods. In: Models of lung disease. Microscopy and structural methods. USAGoogle Scholar
  68. Weldekidan H, Strezov V, Town G, Kan T (2018) Production and analysis of fuels and chemicals obtained from rice husk pyrolysis with concentrated solar radiation. Fuel. 233:396–403.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2018.06.061 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. West J.B., 2012. Respiratory physiology. The essentials, 9th edition; Chapter 7, The mechanics of breathingGoogle Scholar
  70. World Health Organization (WHO) (2010) World Health Organization guidelines for indoor air quality: selected pollutants. WHO Regional Office for Europe, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  71. Xue Z, Zhang L, Liu Y, Gunst SJ, Tepper RS (2008) Chronic inflation of ferret lungs with CPAP reduces airway smooth muscle contractility in vivo and in vitro. J Appl Physiol 104(1):610–615.  https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00241.2007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zhang S, Liu H, Yin X, Li Z, Yu J, Ding B (2017) Tailoring mechanically robust poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) nanofiber/nets for ultrathin high-efficiency air filter. Sci Rep 7:40550CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Silveira Serra
    • 1
    Email author
  • Karla Camila Lima de Souza
    • 2
  • Soujanya Talapala Naidu
    • 2
  • Jéssica Rocha de Lima
    • 3
  • Fladimir de Lima Gondim
    • 2
  • Maria Diana Moreira Gomes
    • 2
  • Rinaldo dos Santos Araújo
    • 3
  • Mona Lisa Moura de Oliveira
    • 1
  • Francisco Sales Ávila Cavalcante
    • 1
  1. 1.Science and Technology CenterState University of CearáFortalezaBrazil
  2. 2.Institute of Biomedical SciencesState University of CearáFortalezaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry and EnvironmentFederal Institute of CearáFortalezaBrazil

Personalised recommendations