Amino-Fe3O4-functionalized multi-layered graphene oxide as an ecofriendly and highly effective nanoscavenger of the reactive drimaren red

  • Tiago José Marques FragaEmail author
  • Luiz Filipe Félix da Silva
  • Letticia Emely Maria de Lima Ferreira
  • Maryne Patrícia da Silva
  • Daysianne Mikaella dos Santos Marques Fraga
  • Caroline Maria Bezerra de Araújo
  • Marilda Nascimento Carvalho
  • Jorge Vinicius Fernandes de Lima Cavalcanti
  • Marcos Gomes Ghislandi
  • Maurício Alves da Motta Sobrinho
Research Article


Amino-functionalized multilayer graphene oxide (Am-nGO) has been synthesized and applied to remove the reactive drimaren red (DR) from aqueous solutions. Infrared spectroscopy evidenced amine and amide presence by peaks at 1579 cm−1 and a band between 3300 and 3500 cm−1. Raman spectroscopy showed an increment in ID/IG ratio after amino-Fe3O4-functionalization of nGO from 1.05 to 1.20, referent to an increase in sp3 domain disorder. The isoelectric point of Am-nGO was pH 8.1. From kinetic study, the equilibrium was achieved within 90 min; moreover, pseudo-n-order model satisfactorily fitted to the experimental data. Kinetic constant (kn) was 0.71 mg1−n g1−n min−1 and modeled equilibrium sorption capacity (qe) 219.17 mg g−1. Equilibrium experiments showed monolayer adsorption capacity (qm) of 219.75 mg g−1, and BET model best fitted to the equilibrium data, indicating that the adsorption process happened with multiple layers formation. From sorption thermodynamics, the standard free energy of Gibbs and enthalpy were respectively − 31.91 kJ mol−1 (at 298 K) and 66.43 kJ mol−1. Such data evidence the spontaneous and chemical behavior of DR adsorption as a consequence of strong electron donor-receptor interactions between the dye and the nanosorbent. By phytotoxicity assessment, Am-nGO showed inexpressive inhibitory potential to American lettuce seeds in comparison with its precursor nGO and graphite nanoplatelets.


Multilayer graphene oxide Functionalization Adsorption Drimaren red Phytotoxicity Textile wastewater 



Graphene oxide


Reduced graphene oxide


Multilayer graphene oxide


Amino-Fe3O4-functionalized multilayer graphene oxide


Amino functionalized multilayer graphene oxide


Graphite nanoplatelets




Drimaren red








Intraparticle diffusion


Brunauer, Emmet, and Teller isotherm


Nano zero valent iron stacked activated carbon



The authors acknowledge the technical support provided by the Centro de Tecnologias Estratégicas do Nordeste (CETENE), the Laboratório de Análises de Minerais, Solos e Águas (LAMSA)/UFPE, the Instituto de Tecnologia de Pernambuco (ITEP), and the Centro de Pesquisas Avançadas em Grafeno, Nanomateriais e Nanotecnologias (MackGraphe)/Instituto Presbiteriano Mackenzie, São Paulo/SP.

Funding information

This work was supported by the Fundação de Amparo à Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Pernambuco (FACEPE) [grant numbers IBPG-1917-3.06/16 and APQ-1086-3.06/15] and the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) [grant number 311133/2015-0].


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tiago José Marques Fraga
    • 1
    Email author
  • Luiz Filipe Félix da Silva
    • 1
  • Letticia Emely Maria de Lima Ferreira
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maryne Patrícia da Silva
    • 1
  • Daysianne Mikaella dos Santos Marques Fraga
    • 1
  • Caroline Maria Bezerra de Araújo
    • 1
  • Marilda Nascimento Carvalho
    • 1
  • Jorge Vinicius Fernandes de Lima Cavalcanti
    • 1
  • Marcos Gomes Ghislandi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Maurício Alves da Motta Sobrinho
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Engenharia QuímicaUniversidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE)RecifeBrazil
  2. 2.Centro de BiociênciasUniversidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE)RecifeBrazil
  3. 3.Campus das Engenharias–UACSAUniversidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE)Cabo de Santo AgostinhoBrazil

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