Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Comparative study on adsorption and immobilization of Cd(II) by rape component biomass

  • 31 Accesses


Agricultural wastes have promising potential for the production of low-cost and sustainable adsorbents for heavy metals, while the characteristics of those biosorbents and the stability of the passivated heavy metals under natural conditions need to be studied further. In this paper, the oilseed rape plant after seed harvesting was divided into three parts: root (RT), stem (ST), and pod (PD). The isotherm adsorption of cadmium (Cd(II)) on the biomass was conducted. In practice, the biomass was aged in the Cd(II)-contaminated soil, and the concentration of Cd(II) in the leachate was measured after the continuous eluent of typical acid rain. The components and elements of the biomass were determined for the analysis of the differences between the immobilization abilities of the biomass. Results showed the CC (corn cob, as a comparison), ST, RT, and PD had the adsorption capacities of 6.34, 7.58, 9.22, and 9.87 mg/g for Cd(II) through the Langmuir fitting of the isothermal adsorption experiments, respectively. The leached Cd(II) were reduced 1063, 2073, 2824, and 3621 μg by CC, ST, RT, and PD biomass aging, respectively. Compared that by CC, the immobilization differences between the biomass in soil were much greater than that in isotherm adsorption, indicating the biosorption ability of rape biomass was enlarged during the 30 days of aging. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur contents showed sequences as pod>root>stem and had high correlations with the reduced amount of leached Cd(II), which indicated protein might be beneficial for the enhancement of adsorption/immobilization in the soil.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. Ahmad A, Bhat AH, Buang A (2018) Biosorption of transition metals by freely suspended and Ca-alginate immobilised with Chlorella vulgaris: kinetic and equilibrium modeling. J Clean Prod 171:1361–1375

  2. Bhatnagar A, Sillanpää M, Witek-Krowiak A (2015) Agricultural waste peels as versatile biomass for water purification - a review. Chem Eng J 270:244–271

  3. Bulgariu L, Bulgariu D (2018) Functionalized soy waste biomass - a novel environmental-friendly biosorbent for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution. J Clean Prod 197:875–885

  4. Burakov AE, Galunin EV, Burakova IV, Kucherova AE, Agarwal S, Tkachev AG, Gupta VK (2018) Adsorption of heavy metals on conventional and nanostructured materials for wastewater treatment purposes: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 148:702–712

  5. Cao X, Liang Y, Zhao L, Le H (2013) Mobility of Pb, Cu, and Zn in the phosphorus-amended contaminated soils under simulated landfill and rainfall conditions. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:5913–5921

  6. Christou A, Karaolia P, Hapeshi E, Michael C, Fatta-Kassinos D (2017) Long-term wastewater irrigation of vegetables in real agricultural systems: concentration of pharmaceuticals in soil, uptake and bioaccumulation in tomato fruits and human health risk assessment. Water Res 109:24–34

  7. Dixit A, Dixit S, Goswami CS (2015) Eco-friendly alternatives for the removal of heavy metal using dry biomass of weeds and study the mechanism involved. J Bioremed Biodegr 06:290

  8. FAO. FAOSTAT [Internet]. 2015. Available from:

  9. Fomina M, Gadd GM (2014) Biosorption: current perspectives on concept, definition and application. Bioresour Technol 160:3–14

  10. Gao R, Zhu P, Guo G, Hu H, Zhu J, Fu Q (2016) Efficiency of several leaching reagents on removal of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn from highly contaminated paddy soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:23271–23280

  11. García-Ordiales E, Esbrí JM, Covelli S, López-Berdonces MA, Higueras PL, Loredo J (2016) Heavy metal contamination in sediments of an artificial reservoir impacted by long-term mining activity in the Almadén mercury district (Spain). Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:6024–6038

  12. Ge Y, Li Z (2018) Application of lignin and its derivatives in adsorption of heavy metal ions in water: a review. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 6:7181–7192

  13. Gee GW, Bauder JW (1986) Particle-size analysis. In: Klute A (ed) Methods of soil analysis, part 1, physical and mineralogical methods. ASA/SSSA, Madison, pp 383–411

  14. Hu C, Zhu P, Cai M, Hu H, Fu Q (2017) Comparative adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) on chitosan saturated montmorillonite: kinetic, thermodynamic and equilibrium studies. Appl Clay Sci 143:320–326

  15. Hu C, Wei M, Chen J, Liu H, Kou M (2019) Comparative study of the adsorption / immobilization of Cu by turmeric residues after microbial and chemical extraction. Sci Total Environ 691:1082–1088

  16. Jackson ML (1973) Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi

  17. Lindholm-Lehto PC (2019) Biosorption of heavy metals by lignocellulosic biomass and chemical analysis. Bioresources 14:4952–4995

  18. Malik DS, Jain CK, Yadav AK (2017) Removal of heavy metals from emerging cellulosic low-cost adsorbents: a review. Appl Water Sci 7:2113–2136

  19. Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1996) Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter: laboratory methods. In: Sparks, D.L., et al. (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis, part 3, chemical methods. SSSA book Ser. No 5. ASA-CSA-SSSA Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, 961–1010

  20. Schneider IAH, Rubio J (1999) Sorption of heavy metal ions by the nonliving biomass of freshwater macrophytes. Environ Sci Technol 33:2213–2217

  21. Sluiter A, Hames B, Ruiz R, Scarlata C, Sluiter J, Templeton D, Crocker D (2008) Determination of structural carbohydrates and lignin in biomass. Laboratory analytical procedure, 1–15

  22. Standardization Administration of P.R.C. (2016) Food Safety Standard - Determination of Reducing Sugar in Foods (GB 5009.7—2016)[S]

  23. Sumner ME, Miller WP (1996) Cation and exchange capacity and exchange coefficients. In: Sparks, D.L., et al. (Eds.), methods of soil analysis, part 3: chemical methods. SSSA Book Ser. No 5, ASA-CSA-SSSA Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, 1201–1231

  24. Tica D, Udovic M, Lestan D (2013) Long-term efficiency of soil stabilization with apatite and Slovakite: the impact of two earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris and Dendrobaena veneta) on lead bioaccessibility and soil functioning. Chemosphere 91:1–6

  25. Yargiç AS, Yarbay Şahin RZ, Özbay N, Önal E (2015) Assessment of toxic copper(II) biosorption from aqueous solution by chemically-treated tomato waste. J Clean Prod 88:152–159

  26. Yekta SS, Skyllberg U, Danielsson Å, Björn A, Svensson BH (2017) Chemical speciation of sulfur and metals in biogas reactors-implications for cobalt and nickel bio-uptake processes. J Hazard Mater 324:110–116

  27. Zając T, Klimek-Kopyra A, Oleksy A, Lorenc-Kozik A, Ratajczak K (2016) Analysis of yield and plant traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivated in temperate region in light of the possibilities of sowing in arid areas. Acta Agrobot 69:1–13

  28. Zhou XD, Xu FZ, Liu WJ, Wu Y, Zhao T, Jiang H (2017) Progress in the studies of precipitation chemistry in acid rain areas of Southeast China. Environ Sci (in Chinese) 38:4438–4446

  29. Zhu Y, Wang Q, Chai L, Li Q, Yang Z, Zhang Z, Wang Y (2010) Synthesis of thiol-functionalized spent grain as a novel adsorbent for divalent metal ions. Bioresour Technol 101:6269–6272

Download references


This research was funded by Hubei Technological Innovation Special Fund (CN) (2018ABA098 and 2019ABA117).

Author information

Correspondence to Chao Hu or Hongqing Hu.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


Cd(II) adsorption has a sequence as pod>root>stem of the rape biomass; Aging in the soil enlarges the difference between Cd(II) immobilization; Protein is more conducive to Cd(II) immobilization.

Responsible editor: Zhihong Xu

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hu, C., Hu, H., Tang, Y. et al. Comparative study on adsorption and immobilization of Cd(II) by rape component biomass. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020).

Download citation


  • Oilseed rape
  • Biomass
  • Cadmium
  • Immobilization
  • Biosorption
  • Protein