Advertisement

The modeling and analysis of transesterification reaction conditions in the selection of optimal biodiesel yield and viscosity

  • 21 Accesses

Abstract

Among alternative fuels, biodiesel has been emphasized as a substantial candidate for diesel engines because of many advantages. However, the main shortcomings preventing more widespread use of biodiesel are high production cost and viscosity. In order to simultaneously overcome both of these shortcomings, the reaction conditions for the transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) were optimized using Taguchi and the full factorial design approaches. The analyses of signal to noise ratio and variance were also performed to identify the dominance of reaction conditions on viscosity and biodiesel yield. As a result, the optimal reaction conditions giving the lowest kinematic viscosity (3.991 cSt) and the highest biodiesel yield (98.19%) were determined to be as follows: sodium methoxide amount of 1.00 wt%, reaction time of 60 min, reaction temperature of 55 °C, and methanol to oil molar ratio of 6:1. The catalyst amount and methanol to oil molar ratio were found to be the most significant conditions influencing on the viscosity (10.36% and 78.87% contributions) and the yield (58.48% and 20.17% contributions), respectively. Finally, all physicochemical properties of final waste cooking oil biodiesel (WCOB) produced under optimal reaction conditions were found to meet the EN 14214.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. Ahmad AL, Yasin NHM, Derek CJC, Lim JK (2011) Microalgae as a sustainable energy source for biodiesel production: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15:584–593. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.09.018

  2. Arslan R, Ulusoy Y (2018) Utilization of waste cooking oil as an alternative fuel for Turkey. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:24520–22452. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-8899-3

  3. ASTM D 86 (2018) Standard test method for distillation of petroleum products and liquid fuels at atmospheric pressure. https://www.astm.org/Standards/D86.

  4. ASTM D 4737 (2016) Standard test method for calculated cetane index by four variable equation. https://www.astm.org/Standards/D4737.

  5. Azcan N, Yilmaz O (2013) Microwave assisted transesterification of waste frying oil and concentrate methyl ester content of biodiesel by molecular distillation. Fuel 104:614–619. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.06.084

  6. Behera AR, Veluppal A, Dutta K (2019) Optimization of physical parameters for enhanced production of lipase from Staphylococcus hominis using response surface methodology. Environ Sci Pollut Res 1:1–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04304-0

  7. Bilgin A, Gulum M, Koyuncuoglu I, Nac E, Cakmak AV (2015) Determination of transesterification reaction parameters giving the lowest viscosity waste cooking oil biodiesel. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 195:2492–2500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.318

  8. Bobadilla MC, Lorza RL, García RE, Gómez FS, González EPV (2017) An improvement in biodiesel production from waste cooking oil by applying thought multi-response surface methodology using desirability functions. Energies 10(1):130:1-20. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10010130

  9. Bobadilla MC, Martinez RF, Lorza RL, Gómez FS, González EPV (2018) Optimizing biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using genetic algorithm-based support vector machines. Energies 11(11):2995:1-19. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11112995

  10. DIN 51605 (2016) Fuels for vegetable oil compatible combustion engines-Fuel from oil-requirements and test methods. https://infostore.saiglobal.com/en-us/Standards/DIN-51605-2016-401413_SAIG_DIN_DIN_909991/.

  11. DIN 51900–2 (2003) Testing of solid and liquid fuels - determination of the gross calorific value by the bomb calorimeter and calculation of the net calorific value - Part 2: Method using isoperibol or static jacket calorimeter. https://www.boutique.afnor.org/standard/din-51900-2/testing-of-solid-and-liquid-fuels-determination-of-the-gross-calorific-value-by-the-bomb-calorimeter-and-calculation-of-the-net-/article/781810/eu010337. Accessed 20 November 2019

  12. DIN 53015 (2001) Viscometry - measurement of viscosity by means of the rolling ball viscometer by Höppler standard by Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V. (German National Standard).https://infostore.saiglobal.com/en-us/Standards/DIN-53015-2001-406456_SAIG_DIN_DIN_920806/. Accessed 20 November 2019

  13. EN 116 (2018) Diesel and domestic heating fuels – determination of cold filter plugging point – stepwise cooling bath method. https://www.en-standard.eu/din-en-116-diesel-and-domestic-heating-fuels-determination-of-cold-filter-plugging-point-stepwise-cooling-bath-method/?gclid=CjwKCAiAqqTuBRBAEiwA7B66haO4cZJ081rCRxlp6FJmEuvNGx6aJTpioP-M_AlSJzbLXbXzhZBOnRoCJrQQAvD_BwE.

  14. EN 2160 (1998) Petroleum products-corrosiveness to copper-copper strip test. European Committee for Standardization. https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:2160:ed-3:v1:en.

  15. EN 3679 (2015) Determination of flash no-flash and flash point - rapid equilibrium closed cup method. https://www.iso.org/standard/61924.html. Accessed 20 November 2019

  16. EN 12662 (2014) Liquid petroleum products – Determination of total contamination in middle distillates, diesel fuels and fatty acid methyl esters. https://www.en-standard.eu/din-en-12662-liquid-petroleum-products-determination-of-total-contamination-in-middle-distillates-diesel-fuels-and-fatty-acid-methyl-esters/?gclid=CjwKCAiAqqTuBRBAEiwA7B66hfCUwEkTJK3-lAY8oHxHtLk_xiyZoQr-IvFJexG0vucmM8kVZG3bFhoCriIQAvD_BwE.

  17. EN 12937 (2001) Petroleum products – Determination of water – Coulometric Karl Fischer titration method.

  18. EN 14103 (2012) Fatty acid methyl esters in B100 biodiesel by gas chromatography. https://www.perkinelmer.com/CMSResources/Images/44-74116APP_FAMEbyGCinB100Biodiesel.pdf.

  19. EN 14104 (2003) Fat and oil derivatives. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Determination of acid value. https://www.en-standard.eu/din-en-14104-fat-and-oil-derivates-fatty-acid-methyl-esters-fame-determination-of-acid-value/?gclid=CjwKCAiAqqTuBRBAEiiwA7B66hbABRF17Llvve1At61ywrZkzltNT6zFDzWnM_MXud_vDZZQrk2QJvhoCcboQAvD_BwE. Accessed 20 November 2019

  20. EN 14105 (2011) Fat and oil derivatives. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Determination of free and total glycerol and mono-, di-, and triglyceride contents. https://www.en-standard.eu/bs-en-14105-2011-fat-and-oil-derivatives-fatty-acid-methyl-esters-fame-determination-of-free-and-total-glycerol-and-mono-di-triglyceride-contents/?gclid=CjwKCAiAzanuBRAZEiwA5yf4us1hk1_NuGq2BOS5b-3DtCLiDKvyaZLKTz2_fxoXra_FUFr2njRqvhoC4_wQAvD_BwE. Accessed 20 November 2019

  21. EN 14108 (2003) Fat and oil derivatives. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Determination of sodium content by atomic absorption spectrometry. https://www.en-standard.eu/bs-en-14108-2003-fat-and-oil-derivatives-fatty-acid-methyl-esters-fame-determination-of-sodium-content-by-atomic-absorption-spectrometry/?gclid=CjwKCAiAzanuBRAZEiwA5yf4uhFswdwW-jwm8OR3cx3sX9oUsuK0j4NPaAjgm2ZfdAyiFM64EOcjx4xoCiAAQAvD_BwE. Accessed 20 November 2019

  22. EN 14109 (2003) Fat and oil derivatives. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Determination of potassium content by atomic absorption spectrometry: German version. https://www.techstreet.com/standards/din-en-14109?product_id=1124718. Accessed 20 November 2019

  23. EN 14110 (2011) Determination of methanol content in biodiesel using agilent select biodiesel for methanol with headspace sampling to EN-14110.

  24. EN 14111 (2003) Fat and oil derivatives. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Determination of iodine value. https://www.en-standard.eu/din-en-14111-fat-and-oil-derivatives-fatty-acid-methyl-esters-fame-determination-of-iodine-value/?gclid=CjwKCAiAqqTuBRBAEiwA7Bi66hXJVkF45sjVA9sa03NXCby7bLY2RRK2dMmROjpTOUI6hQJYEhXU2HxoCVp8QAvD_BwE. Accessed 20 November 2019

  25. EN 14214 (2019) Liquid petroleum products - fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for use in diesel engines and heating applications - requirements and test methods. https://www.techstreet.com/standards/din-en-14214?product_id=2043260.

  26. EN 14538 (2006) Fat and oil derivatives. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Determination of Ca, K, Mg and Na content by optical emission spectral analysis with inductively coupled plasma (ICP OES). https://www.en-standard.eu/bs-en-14538-2006-fat-and-oil-derivatives-fatty-acid-methyl-ester-fame-determination-of-ca-k-mg-and-na-content-by-optical-emission-spectral-analysis-with-inductively-coupled-plasma-icp-oes/?gclid=CjwKCAiAzanuBRAZEiwA5yf4uu0b3E9GDwF1iKcV_T8HuvisBNcKLr7gb6HD0kvdVyRPP73KXFyBoBoCnWMQAvD_BwE. Accessed 20 November 2019

  27. EN 15779 (2009) Determination of polyunsaturated (≥ 4 double bonds) fatty acid methyl esters (PUFA). http://www.paclp.com/tenants/pac/documents/AC_EN15779_PUFA.pdf.

  28. EN 20846 (2019) Petroleum products - determination of sulfur content of automotive fuels - ultraviolet fluorescence method. https://www.iso.org/standard/74313.html.

  29. Eryilmaz T, Yesilyurt MK (2016) Influence of blending ratio on the physicochemical properties of safflower oil methyl ester-safflower oil, safflower oil methyl ester-diesel and safflower oil-diesel. Renew Energy 95:233–247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.04.009

  30. Ghosh UK (2018) An approach for phycoremediation of different wastewaters and biodiesel production using microalgae. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:18673–18681. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1967-5

  31. Gulum M, Bilgin A (2015) Density, flash point and heating value variations of corn oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends. Fuel Process Technol 134:456–464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.02.026

  32. Gulum M, Bilgin A, Cakmak AV (2015) Comparison of optimum reaction parameters of corn oil biodiesels produced by using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). J Fac Eng Archit Gazi Univ 30:503–511

  33. Gulum M, Bilgin A (2016) Two-term power models for estimating kinematic viscosities of different biodiesel-diesel fuel blends. Fuel Process Technol 149:121–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2016.04.013

  34. Gulum M, Bilgin A (2017) Measurements and empirical correlations in predicting biodiesel-diesel blends’ viscosity and density. Fuel 199:567–577. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.03.001

  35. Gulum M, Bilgin A (2018) A comprehensive study on measurement and prediction of viscosity of biodiesel-diesel-alcohol ternary blends. Energy 148:341–361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.01.123

  36. Gulum M, Yesilyurt MK, Bilgin A (2019) The performance assessment of cubic spline interpolation and response surface methodology in the mathematical modeling to optimize biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Fuel 255:115778. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.115778

  37. Hamze H, Akia M, Yazdani F (2015) Optimization of biodiesel production from the waste cooking oil using response surface methodology. Process Saf Environ Prot 94:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2014.12.005

  38. Holman JP (2001) Experimental methods for engineers, seventh edn. McGraw-Hill International Edition, New York. isbn:9780071181655

  39. ISO 3987 (2010) Petroleum products – Determination of sulfated ash in lubricating oils and additives. https://www.sis.se/api/document/preview/912796/.

  40. ISO 4787 (2010) Laboratory glassware, volumetric glassware and methods for use and testing of capacity. https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:4787:ed-2:v2:en.

  41. Jordanov DI, Petkov PS, Dimitrov YK, Ivanov SK (2007) Methanol transesterification of different vegetable oils. Petroleum & Coal 49:21–23

  42. Kamel DA, Farag HA, Amin NK, Zatout AA, Fouad YO (2019) Utilization of Ficus carica leaves as a heterogeneous catalyst for production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 1:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06424-z

  43. Kumar V, Kumar A, Nanda M (2018) Pretreated animal and human waste as a substantial nutrient source for cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:22052–22059. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2339-x

  44. Kumar N, Mohapatra SK, Ragit SS, Kundu K, Karmakar R (2017) Optimization of safflower oil transesterification using the Taguchi approach. Pet Sci 14:798–805. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12182-017-0183-0

  45. Lapuerta M, Rodríguez-Fernández J, Fernández-Rodríguez D, Patiño-Camino R (2017) Modeling viscosity of butanol and ethanol blends with diesel and biodiesel fuels. Fuel 199:332–338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.02.101

  46. Li HP, Zhao H (2015) Preparing biodiesel from high-acidity waste cooking oil catalyzed by sodium methoxide. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects 37:334–340. https://doi.org/10.1080/15567036.2011.590854

  47. Lim S, Teong LK (2010) Recent trends, opportunities and challenges of biodiesel in Malaysia: an overview. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14:938–954. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.10.027

  48. Mohadesi M, Aghel B, Maleki M, Ansari A (2019) Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using a homogeneous catalyst: study of semi-industrial pilot of microreactor. Renew Energy 136:677–682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.01.039

  49. Mohammadshirazi A, Akram A, Rafiee S, Kalhor EB (2014) Energy and cost analyses of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Renew Sust Energ Rev 33:44–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.01.067

  50. Pour AH, Ardebili SMS (2018) Multi-objective optimization of diesel engine performance and emissions fueled with diesel-biodiesel-fusel oil blends using response surface method. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:35429–35439. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3459-z

  51. Rajak U, Nashine P, Verma TN, Pugazhendhi A (2019a) Alternating the environmental benefits of Aegle-diesel blends used in compression ignition. Fuel 256:115835. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.115835

  52. Rajak U, Nashine P, Verma TN, Pugazhendhi A (2019b) Performance, combustion and emission analysis of microalgae Spirulina in a common rail direct injection diesel engine. Fuel 255:115855. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.115855

  53. Rajak U, Verma TN (2019) A comparative analysis of engine characteristics from various biodiesels: numerical study. Energy Convers Manag 180:904–923. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2018.11.044

  54. Sabudak T, Yildiz M (2010) Biodiesel production from waste frying oils and its quality control. Waste Manag 30:799–803. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2010.01.007

  55. Shrivastava P, Verma TN, Pugazhendhi A (2019) An experimental evaluation of engine performance and emission characteristics of CI engine operated with Roselle and Karanja biodiesel. Fuel 254:115652. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.115652

  56. Singh TS, Verma TN (2019a) Taguchi design approach for extraction of methyl ester from waste cooking oil using synthesized CaO as heterogeneous catalyst: response surface methodology optimization. Energy Convers Manag 182:383–397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2018.12.077

  57. Singh TS, Verma TN (2019b) Biodiesel production from Momordica Charantia (L.): extraction and engine characteristics. Energy 189:116198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2019.116198

  58. Supraja KV, Behera B, Paramasivan B (2019) Optimization of process variables on two-step microwave-assisted transesterification of waste cooking oil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 1:1–12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05384-8

  59. Uzun BB, Kılıç M, Ozbay N, Pütün AE, Pütün E (2012) Biodiesel production from waste frying oils: optimization of reaction parameters and determination of fuel properties. Energy 44:347–351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2012.06.024

  60. Vellaiyan S, Subbiah A, Chockalingam P (2019) Multi-response optimization to obtain better performance and emission level in a diesel engine fueled with water-biodiesel emulsion fuel and nanoadditive. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26:4833–4841. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3979-6

  61. Venugopal P, Kasimani R, Chinnasamy S (2018) Prediction and optimization of CI engine performance fuelled with Calophyllum inophyllum diesel blend using response surface methodology (RSM). Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:24829–24844. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2519-8

  62. Wen Z, Yu X, Tu ST, Yan J, Dahlquist E (2010) Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil catalyzed by TiO2-MgO mixed oxides. Bioresour Technol 101:9570–9576. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.07.066

  63. Wu HW, Wu ZY (2013) Using Taguchi method on combustion performance of a diesel engine with diesel/biodiesel blend and port-inducting H2. Appl Energy 104:362–370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.10.055

  64. Yadav AK, Khan O, Khan ME (2018) Utilization of high FFA landfill waste (leachates) as a feedstock for sustainable biodiesel production: its characterization and engine performance evaluation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:32312–32320. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3199-0

  65. Yesilyurt MK, Arslan M, Eryilmaz T (2019) Application of response surface methodology fort the optimization of biodiesel production from yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seed oil. International Journal of Green Energy 16:60–71. https://doi.org/10.1080/15435075.2018.1532431

  66. Zhang Y, Dubé MA, McLean DD, Kates M (2003) Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 2. Economic assessment and sensitivity analysis. Bioresource and Technology 90:229–240. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(03)00150-0

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Mert Gülüm.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible editor: Ta Yeong Wu

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 37 kb)

ESM 2

(XLSX 12 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gülüm, M., Yesilyurt, M.K. & Bilgin, A. The modeling and analysis of transesterification reaction conditions in the selection of optimal biodiesel yield and viscosity. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-07473-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Alternative fuels
  • Methyl ester
  • Waste cooking oil
  • Taguchi method
  • Fuel properties