Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

A review on adsorptive removal of dyes from wastewater by hydroxyapatite nanocomposites

Abstract

Dye removal from wastewater is of prominence due to its hostile effects on human health and the environment. The complex structure of the dye molecule is responsible for its difficulty in removal. Adsorption is found to be a promising technique to eliminate dye wastes due to its high removal capacity at low concentration. Among different adsorbents used, hydroxyapatite is a biocompatible adsorbent that is relatively efficient in both anionic and cationic dye removal. Recently, modification of hydroxyapatite by doping with other materials to increase its removal efficiency has gained much attention. This review summarizes compilation of recent literature on the removal of anionic and cationic dye by different hydroxyapatite nanocomposites, comparison of adsorption capacities of different hydroxyapatite nanocomposites, the possible adsorption mechanism of removal of dyes, the general isotherm, and kinetic and thermodynamic studies explaining the type of adsorption and the characteristics, advantages, and limitations of adsorbents.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. Abd-Elhamid AI et al (2019) Evaluation of graphene oxide-activated carbon as effective composite adsorbent toward the removal of cationic dyes: composite preparation, characterization and adsorption parameters. J Mol Liq 279:530–539. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2019.01.162

  2. Ahmed YMZ, El-Sheikh SM, Zaki ZI (2015) Changes in hydroxyapatite powder properties via heat treatment. Bull Mater Sci 38(7):1807–1819

  3. Akarslan F, Demiralay H (2015) Effects of textile materials harmful to human health. Acta Phys Pol A 128(2):407–408

  4. Amirthalingam N, Deivarajan T, Paramasivam M (2019) Mechano chemical synthesis of hydroxyapatite using dolomite. Mater Lett 254:379–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2019.07.118

  5. Asjadi F, Salahi E, Mobasherpour I (2016) Removal of Reactive Red 141 Dye from aqueous solution by titanium hydroxyapatite pellets. J Dispers Sci Technol 37(1):14–22

  6. Aslanov T, Uzunoğlu D, Özer A (2017) Synthesis of hydroxyapatite-alginate composite: methylene blue adsorption. Sinop Uni J Nat Sci 2(1) 2(1):37–47

  7. Azzaoui K et al (2019) Preparation of hydroxyapatite biobased micro composite film for selective removal of toxic dyes from wastewater. Desalin Water Treat 149:194–208

  8. Bakre N, Mathur N, Bhatnagar P (2005) Assessing mutagenicity of textile dyes from Pali (Rajasthan) using ames bioassay. Appl Ecol Environ Res 4(1):111–118

  9. Bharti V, Vikrant K, Goswami M, Tiwari H, Sonwani RK, Lee J, Tsang DCW, Kim KH, Saeed M, Kumar S, Rai BN, Giri BS, Singh RS (2019) Biodegradation of methylene blue dye in a batch and continuous mode using biochar as packing media. Environ Res 171:356–364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.01.051

  10. Canillas M et al (2017) Processing of hydroxyapatite obtained by combustion synthesis. Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Ceramica y Vidrio 56(5):237–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bsecv.2017.05.002

  11. Chahkandi M (2017) Mechanism of Congo red adsorption on new sol-gel-derived hydroxyapatite nano-particle. Mater Chem Phys 202:340–351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2017.09.047

  12. Chaikina MV et al (2019) Interaction of calcium phosphates with calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide during the ‘soft’ mechanochemical synthesis of hydroxyapatite. Ceram Int (May):1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2019.05.239

  13. Chatterjee S, Gupta A, Mohanta T, Mitra R, Samanta D, Mandal AB, Majumder M, Rawat R, Singha NR (2018) Scalable synthesis of hide substance-chitosan-hydroxyapatite: novel biocomposite from industrial wastes and its efficiency in dye removal. ACS Omega 3(9):11486–11496

  14. Chaudhary S, Sharma P, Renu, Kumar R (2016) Hydroxyapatite doped CeO 2 nanoparticles: impact on biocompatibility and dye adsorption properties. RSC Adv 6(67):62797–62809

  15. Chu TPM et al (2019) Synthesis, characterization, and modification of alumina nanoparticles for cationic dye removal. Materials 12(3):1–15

  16. Cinperi NC, Ozturk E, Yigit NO, Kitis M (2019) Treatment of woolen textile wastewater using membrane bioreactor, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for reuse in production processes. J Clean Prod 223:837–848

  17. Darvishalipour F, Ghafouri Taleghani H, Ghorbani M, Salimi Kenari H (2019) Fabrication of nanoporous functionalized hydroxyapatite as high performance adsorbent for acid blue 25 dye removal. Int J Eng 32(2):193–200

  18. Djilani C et al (2015) Adsorption of dyes on activated carbon prepared from apricot stones and commercial activated carbon. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 53:112–121

  19. Donneys-Victoria D, Bermúdez-Rubio D, Torralba-Ramírez B, Marriaga-Cabrales N, Machuca-Martínez F (2019) Removal of indigo carmine dye by electrocoagulation using magnesium anodes with polarity change. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26(7):7164–7176

  20. Dotto J et al (2019) Performance of different coagulants in the coagulation/flocculation process of textile wastewater. J Clean Prod 208:656–665

  21. El-Maghrabi HH et al (2019) Preparation and characterization of novel magnetic ZnFe2O4–hydroxyapatite core–shell nanocomposite and its use as fixed bed column system for removal of oil residue in oily wastewater samples. Egypt J Pet 28(2):137–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2018.12.005

  22. Fernandes FH, de Aragão Umbuzeiro G, Salvadori DMF (2018) Genotoxicity of textile dye C.I. disperse blue 291 in mouse bone marrow. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 837(2019):48–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2018.10.003

  23. Fihri A, Len C, Varma RS, Solhy A (2017) Hydroxyapatite: a review of syntheses, structure and applications in heterogeneous catalysis. Coord Chem Rev 347:48–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2017.06.009

  24. Foo K, Hameed B (2010) Insights into the modeling of adsorption isotherm systems. Chem Eng J:2–10

  25. Nasab SG et al (2018) Removal of Congo red from aqueous solution by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles loaded on zein as an efficient and green adsorbent: response surface methodology and artificial neural network-genetic algorithm. J Polym Environ 26(9):3677–3697. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-018-1246-z

  26. Gottardo B et al (2019) One-pot synthesis and antifungal activity of nontoxic silver-loaded hydroxyapatite nanocomposites against Candida species. ACS Applied Nano Materials:1–36

  27. Gouthaman A et al (2019) Enhanced dye removal using polymeric nanocomposite through incorporation of Ag doped ZnO nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization. J Hazard Mater 373(November 2018):493–503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.03.105

  28. Guo X et al (2013) Effect of calcining temperature on particle size of hydroxyapatite synthesized by solid-state reaction at room temperature. Adv Powder Technol 24(6):1034–1038. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2013.03.002

  29. Hamzah S, Salleh MFM (2014) Hydroxyapatite/chitosan biocomposite for Remazol blue dyes removal. Appl Mech Mater 695:106–109

  30. Harrache Z, Abbas M, Aksil T, Trari M (2019) Thermodynamic and kinetics studies on adsorption of indigo carmine from aqueous solution by activated carbon. Microchem J 144:180–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2018.09.004

  31. Hassan H, Salama A, El-ziaty AK, El-Sakhawy M (2019) New chitosan/silica/zinc oxide nanocomposite as adsorbent for dye removal. Int J Biol Macromol 131:520–526. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.03.087

  32. Hassan MA, Mohammad AM, Salaheldin TA, El-Anadouli BE (2018) A promising hydroxyapatite/graphene hybrid nanocomposite for methylene blue dye’s removal in wastewater treatment. Int J Electrochem Sci 13(8):8222–8240

  33. He K et al (2019) Graphene hybridized polydopamine-kaolin composite as effective adsorbent for methylene blue removal. Compos Part B 161(October 2018):141–149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.10.063

  34. Horta M et al (2019) Synthesis and characterization of green nanohydroxyapatite from hen eggshell by precipitation method. Materialstoday: Proceedings 14:716–721. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2019.02.011

  35. Hosseinzadeh H, Ramin S (2018) Fabrication of starch-graft-poly (acrylamide)/graphene oxide/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite hydrogel adsorbent for removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution. Int J Biol Macromol 106:101–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.07.182

  36. Hou H, Zhou R, Wu P, Lan W (2012) Removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution with hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite. Chem Eng J 211–212:336–342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.09.100

  37. Huang A et al (2019) Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous hydroxyapatite powder by microemulsion technique. Journal of Materials Research and Technology 8(3):3158–3166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2019.02.025

  38. Inthapanya X, Wu S, Han Z, Zeng G, Wu M, Yang C (2019) Adsorptive removal of anionic dye using calcined oyster shells: isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26(6):5944–5954

  39. Zahra JH, Nasab SG, Teimouri A (2019) Synthesis and characterisation of magnetic activated carbon/diopside nanocomposite for removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions: experimental design and optimisation. Int J Environ Anal Chem 99(6):568–594. https://doi.org/10.1080/03067319.2019.1597867

  40. Jedynak K, Wideł D, Rędzia N (2019) Removal of rhodamine B (a basic dye) and acid yellow 17 (an acidic dye) from aqueous solutions by ordered mesoporous carbon and commercial activated carbon. Colloids and Interfaces 3(1):30

  41. Khalil KA (2012) A New-developed nanostructured Mg/HAp nanocomposite by high frequency induction heat sintering process. Int J Electrochem Sci 7(11):10698–10710

  42. Khan S, Butt S (2019) Synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite and nano–fluoroapatite particles by sol-gel method. Pakistan Journal of Medicine and Dentistry 8(2):40–44

  43. Lee MR et al (2019) Biocompatibility of a PLA-based composite containing hydroxyapatite derived from waste bones of dolphin neophocaena asiaeorientalis. J Aust Ceram Soc 55(1):269–279

  44. Li JH et al (2019) Preparation of three dimensional hydroxyapatite nanoparticles/poly (vinylidene fluoride) blend membranes with excellent dye removal efficiency and investigation of adsorption mechanism. Chinese Journal of Polymer Science (English Edition) 37:1234–1247

  45. Li Y et al (2018) Reed biochar supported hydroxyapatite nanocomposite: characterization and reactivity for methylene blue removal from aqueous media. J Mol Liq 263:53–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2018.04.132

  46. Lin J (2015) Comparison between linear and non-linear forms of pseudofirst-order and pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic models for the removal of methylene blue by activated carbon. Front Environ Sci Eng China 3(3):320–324

  47. Manatunga DC, De Silva RM, Nalin De Silva KM, Ratnaweera R (2016) Natural polysaccharides leading to super adsorbent hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solutions. RSC Adv 6(107):105618–105630

  48. Manatunga DC et al (2018) Metal and polymer-mediated synthesis of porous crystalline hydroxyapatite nanocomposites for environmental remediation. R Soc Open Sci 171557(5):1–15. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.%0Afigshare.c.3967896

  49. Mansri A, Mahroug H, Dergal F (2019) In situ preparation of hydroxyapatite composites into hydrolyzed polyacrylamide solution and methylene blue dye retention. Turk J Chem 43(1):213–228

  50. Ministry of Textile Govt of India. 2018. Annual Report 2017-18.

  51. Mishra AK (2016) Sol-gel based nanoceramic materials: preparation, properties and applications Sol-Gel Based Nanoceramic Materials: Preparation. Applications, Properties and

  52. Mishra J et al (2019) Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of cyanide employing Fe-porphyrin sensitizer with hydroxyapatite palladium doped TiO2nano-composite system. J Mol Liq 287(110821):1–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2019.04.098

  53. Mohammad AM, Salah Eldin TA, Hassan MA, El-Anadouli BE (2017) Efficient treatment of lead-containing wastewater by hydroxyapatite/chitosan nanostructures. Arab J Chem 10(5):683–690. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.12.016

  54. Myers AL (2002) Thermodynamics of adsorption in porous materials. AICHE J 48(1):145–160

  55. Naushad, Mu. 2018. A new generation material graphene: applications in water technology A New Generation Material Graphene: Applications in Water Technology.

  56. Naushad M (2019) Adsorption kinetics, isotherm and reusability studies for the removal of cationic dye from aqueous medium using arginine modified activated carbon. J Mol Liq 293:111442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2019.111442

  57. Nguyen VC, Pho QH (2014) Preparation of chitosan coated magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and application for adsorption of reactive blue 19 and Ni 2 + ions. Sci World J 2014:1–9

  58. Oladipo AA, Gazi M (2016) Uptake of Ni2+ and rhodamine B by nano-hydroxyapatite/alginate composite beads: batch and continuous-flow systems. Toxicol Environ Chem 98(2):189–203

  59. Oyekanmi AA, Ahmad A, Hossain K, Rafatullah M (2019) Adsorption of rhodamine B dye from aqueous solution onto acid treated banana peel: response surface methodology, kinetics and isotherm studies. PLoS One 14(5):1–20

  60. Patiha E, Heraldy YH, Firdaus M (2016) The langmuir isotherm adsorption equation: the monolayer approach. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 107(1)

  61. Patiño-Ruiz D, Bonfante H, De Ávila G, Herrera A (2019) Adsorption kinetics, isotherms and desorption studies of Hg(II) from aqueous solution at different temperatures on magnetic sodium alginate-thiourea microbeads. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management 12:100243 https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2215153219300455

  62. Phasuk A, Srisantitham S, Tuntulani T, Anutrasakda W (2018) Facile synthesis of magnetic hydroxyapatite-supported nickel oxide nanocomposite and its dye adsorption characteristics. Adsorption 24(2):157–167. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10450-017-9931-0

  63. Piccirillo C, Castro PML (2017) Calcium hydroxyapatite-based photocatalysts for environment remediation: characteristics, performances and future perspectives. J Environ Manag 193:79–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.01.071

  64. Prabhu SM et al (2018) Synthesis and characterization of graphene oxide-doped nano-hydroxyapatite and its adsorption performance of toxic diazo dyes from aqueous solution. J Mol Liq 269:746–754. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2018.08.044

  65. Pramanik S, Avinash K, Rai KN, Garg A (2007) Development of high strength hydroxyapatite by solid-state-sintering process. Ceram Int 33(3):419–426

  66. Qi C et al (2016) Sonochemical synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoflowers using creatine phosphate disodium salt as an organic phosphorus source and their application in protein adsorption. RSC Adv 6(12):9686–9692. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5RA26231C

  67. Ragab A, Ahmed I, Bader D (2019) The removal of brilliant green dye from aqueous solution using nano hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite as a sorbent. Molecules 24(5):847

  68. Ruffini A, Sprio S, Preti L, Tampieri A (2019) Biomaterial-supported Tissue Reconstruction or Regeneration. In: Synthesis of nanostructured hydroxyapatite via controlled hydrothermal route

  69. Sadat-shojai M, Khorasani M-t, Dinpanah-khoshdargi E, Jamshidi A (2013) Synthesis methods for nanosized hydroxyapatite with diverse structures. Acta Biomater 9(8):7591–7621. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2013.04.012

  70. Sadeghizadeh A et al (2019) Adsorptive removal of Pb(II) by means of hydroxyapatite/chitosan nanocomposite hybrid nanoadsorbent: ANFIS modeling and experimental study. J Environ Manag 232(November 2018):342–353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.11.047

  71. Safavi A, Momeni S (2012) Highly efficient degradation of azo dyes by palladium/hydroxyapatite/Fe 3O 4 nanocatalyst. J Hazard Mater 201–202:125–131

  72. Sahoo JK et al (2019) Magnetic hydroxyapatite nanocomposite: impact on eriochrome black-T removal and antibacterial activity. J Mol Liq 294:111596. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2019.111596

  73. Sampranpiboon P (2014) Equilibrium isotherm models for adsorption of zinc (II) ion from aqueous solution on pulp waste faculty of engineering. WSEAS Trans Environ Dev 10:35–47

  74. dos Santos AB, Cervantes FJ, van Lier JB (2007) Review paper on current technologies for decolourisation of textile wastewaters: perspectives for anaerobic biotechnology. Bioresour Technol 98(12):2369–2385

  75. Sarker M, Shin S, Jeong JH, Jhung SH (2019) Mesoporous metal-organic framework PCN-222(Fe): promising adsorbent for removal of big anionic and cationic dyes from water. Chem Eng J 371(March):252–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.04.039

  76. Sarma GK, Sen Gupta S, Bhattacharyya KG (2019) Removal of hazardous basic dyes from aqueous solution by adsorption onto kaolinite and acid-treated kaolinite: kinetics, isotherm and mechanistic study. SN Applied Sciences 1(3):1–15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-0216-y

  77. Sathiskumar S et al (2019) Green synthesis of biocompatible nanostructured hydroxyapatite from Cirrhinus mrigala fish scale – a biowaste to biomaterial. Ceram Int 45(6):7804–7810. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2019.01.086

  78. Shertate RS, Thorat P (2014) Biotransformation of textile dyes: a bioremedial aspect of marine environment. Am J Environ Sci 10(5):489–499

  79. Shetti NP et al (2019) Electrochemical detection and degradation of textile dye Congo red at graphene oxide modified electrode. Microchem J 146(2018):387–392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2019.01.033

  80. Singh NB, Rachna K, Agrawal A (2019) Methylene blue dye removal from water by nickel ferrite polyaniline nanocomposite. J Sci Ind Res 78:118–121

  81. Sözen S, Olmez T, Masoomeh H, Derin H (2019) Fenton oxidation for effective removal of color and organic matter from denim cotton wastewater without biological treatment. Environ Chem Lett:1–7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-019-00923-8

  82. Sreedhar B, Aparna Y, Sairam M, Hebalkar N (2007) Preparation and characterization of HAP/carboxymethyl chitosan nanocomposites. J Appl Polym Sci 105(2):928–934

  83. Szcześ A, Hołysz L, Chibowski E (2017) Synthesis of hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 249:321–330

  84. Tan, Tina Co Nnie, and Tushar Kanti Sen. 2019. Aqueous-phase methylene blue (MB) dye removal by mixture of eucalyptus bark (EB) biomass and kaolin clay (KC) adsorbents: kinetics, thermodynamics, and isotherm modeling. Separation Science and Technology (Philadelphia) : 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/01496395.2019.1580734.

  85. Tanhaei B, Ayati A, Sillanpää M (2019) Magnetic xanthate modified chitosan as an emerging adsorbent for cationic azo dyes removal: kinetic, thermodynamic and isothermal studies. Int J Biol Macromol 121:1126–1134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.10.137

  86. Trivedi NS, Mandavgane SA (2018) Fundamentals of 2 , 4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid removal from aqueous solutions. Sep Purif Rev:1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/15422119.2018.1450765

  87. Türk S et al (2019) Effect of solution and calcination time on sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite. Journal of Bionic Engineering 16(2):311–318

  88. Vankar PS (2000) Chemistry of natural dyes. Resonance 5(10):73–80

  89. Varaprasad K, Nunez D, Yallapu MM, Jayaramudu T, Elgueta E, Oyarzun P (2018) Nano-hydroxyapatite polymeric hydrogels for dye removal. RSC Adv 8(32):18118–18127

  90. Venkatesh K, Venkatesh S (2019) Ozonation for degradation of acid red 14: effect of buffer solution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section A: Physical Sciences:2–5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40010-018-0583-6

  91. Wang MC et al (2015) Crystalline size, microstructure and biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite nanopowders by hydrolysis of calcium hydrogen phosphate dehydrate (DCPD). Ceram Int 41(2):2999–3008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2014.10.135

  92. Wang Y, Hu L, Zhang G, Yan T, Yan L, Wei Q, du B (2017) Removal of Pb(II) and methylene blue from aqueous solution by magnetic hydroxyapatite-immobilized oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. J Colloid Interface Sci 494:380–388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2017.01.105

  93. Wolff J et al (2018) Rapid wet chemical synthesis for 33 P-labelled hydroxyapatite – an approach for environmental research. Appl Geochem 97:181–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2018.08.010

  94. Yan L et al (2019) Dynamic adsorption of As(V) by hydroxyapatite/bagasse biomass carbon composite adsorbent. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 490(032037):1–7

  95. Yelten-Yilmaz A, Yilmaz S (2018) Wet chemical precipitation synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) powders. Ceram Int 44(8):9703–9710. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.02.201

  96. You Y, KeqiQu, Huang Z, Ma R, Shi C, Li X, Liu D, Dong M, Guo Z (2019) Sodium alginate templated hydroxyapatite/calcium silicate composite adsorbents for efficient dye removal from polluted water. Int J Biol Macromol 141:1035–1043. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.09.082

  97. Yusuf M (2019) Synthetic dyes : a threat to the environment and water ecosystem. Textiles and Clothing:11–26

  98. Zhang F, Ma B, Jiang X, Ji Y (2016) Dual function magnetic hydroxyapatite nanopowder for removal of malachite green and Congo red from aqueous solution. Powder Technol 302:207–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2016.08.044

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Shraddha Pai or M. Srinivas Kini.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible Editor: Tito Roberto Cadaval Jr

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pai, S., Kini, M.S. & Selvaraj, R. A review on adsorptive removal of dyes from wastewater by hydroxyapatite nanocomposites. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-07319-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Adsorption
  • Dye
  • Hydroxyapatite nanocomposite
  • Isotherms
  • Kinetics
  • Thermodynamics