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Copper-induced oxidative stress, initiation of antioxidants and phytoremediation potential of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings grown under the mixing of two different soils of China

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Abstract

Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), one of the oldest cultivated crops, continues to be widely grown for oil, fiber and food. Furthermore, the plants show a metal tolerance dependent on species so is ideal for research. Present study was conducted to find out the influence of copper (Cu) toxicity on plant biomass, growth, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, proline production, antioxidative enzymes and metal up taken by L. usitatissimum from the soil grown under mixing of Cu-contaminated soil with natural soil by 0:1 (control), 1:0, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4. Results revealed that, high concentration of Cu in the soil affected plant growth and development by reducing plant height, plant diameter and plant fresh and dry biomass and chlorophyll contents in the leaves compared with the control. Furthermore, Cu in excess causes generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radical (O) and hydroxyl radicals (OH), which is manifested by high malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents also. The increasing activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots and leaves of L. usitatissimum are involved in the scavenging of ROS. Results also showed that L. usitatissimum also has capability to revoke large amount of Cu from the contaminated soil. As Cu concentration in the soil increases, the final uptake of Cu concentration by L. usitatissimum increases. Furthermore, the soil chemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity and cation exchange capacity) were increasing to highest levels as the ratio of Cu concentration to the natural soil increases. Thus, Cu-contaminated soil is amended with the addition of natural soil significantly reduced plant growth and biomass, while L. usitatissimum is able to revoke large amount of Cu from the soil and could be grown as flaxseed and a potential candidate for phytoremediation of Cu.

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Funding

This research was supported by China Agriculture Research System project (CARS-16-E10) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31571717).

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Correspondence to Lijun Liu.

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Saleem, M.H., Fahad, S., Khan, S.U. et al. Copper-induced oxidative stress, initiation of antioxidants and phytoremediation potential of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings grown under the mixing of two different soils of China. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-07264-7

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Keywords

  • Flax (Linum usitatissimum)
  • Phytoextraction
  • Flaxseed crop
  • Cu-contaminated soil
  • Natural soil
  • Cu uptake
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Growth
  • Proline