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Transformation of hazardous lead into aluminosilicate ceramics: structure evolution and lead leaching

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Abstract

This study investigated crystallization mechanisms for the formation of lead aluminosilicate by sintering lead stabilization with kaolin-based precursors. PbAl2Si2O8 was found to be the only stable lead aluminosilicate in low-PbO system and demonstrates its highly intrinsic resistance to acid attack in leaching test. A three-stage PbAl2Si2O8 formation mechanism was supported by the results of the changing temperature in the system. Amorphization of sintered products was observed in both PbO/kaolinite and PbO/mullite systems at 600–700°C. When the temperature was increased to 750–900°C, the crystallochemical formation of lead aluminosilicates (i.e., Pb4Al4Si3O16, Pb6Al6Si2O21, and PbAl2Si2O8) was observed. Pb4Al4Si3O16 and Pb6Al6Si2O21 were found to be the intermediate phases at 700–900°C. Finally, PbAl2Si2O8 was found to be the only crystallite phase to host Pb at above 950°C. A maximum of 80% and 96.7% Pb can be incorporated into PbAl2Si2O8 in PbO/kaolinite and PbO/mullite systems, respectively, but the final products exhibited different microstructures. To reduce environmental hazard of lead, this strategy demonstrated a preferred mechanism of immobilizing lead into PbAl2Si2O8 structure via kaolin-based precursors.

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Correspondence to Xingwen Lu.

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Yang, J., Lu, X., Liu, Y. et al. Transformation of hazardous lead into aluminosilicate ceramics: structure evolution and lead leaching. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020) doi:10.1007/s11356-019-07153-z

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Keywords

  • Lead
  • Stabilization
  • Ceramics
  • Leaching
  • Crystallization mechanisms
  • Kaolin-based precursors