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Senna alexandrina extract supplementation reverses hepatic oxidative, inflammatory, and apoptotic effects of cadmium chloride administration in rats

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Abstract

Senna alexandrina is traditionally used for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but little information is available concerning its potential protective effects against cadmium, which is a widespread environmental toxicant that causes hepatotoxicity. Here, we explored the effects of S. alexandrina extract (SAE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced liver toxicity over 4 weeks in rats. Rats were allocated into four groups: control, SAE (100 mg/kg), CdCl2 (0.6 mg/kg), and SAE + CdCl2, respectively. Cadmium level in hepatic tissue, blood transaminases, and total bilirubin as indicators of liver function were assessed. Oxidative stress indices [malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrate/nitrite (NO), and glutathione (GSH)], antioxidant molecules [superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT), glutathione-derived enzymes, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)], pro-inflammatory mediators [interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)], apoptosis proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3), and histological alterations to the liver were examined. SAE administration before CdCl2 exposure decreased cadmium deposition in liver tissue and the blood liver function indicators. SAE pre-treatment prevented oxidative, inflammatory, and apoptotic reactions and decreased histological alterations to the liver caused by CdCl2 exposure. SAE can be used as a promising protective agent against CdCl2-induced hepatotoxicity by increasing Nrf2 expression.

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Correspondence to Geliang Xu.

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Wang, X., Wang, T., Pan, T. et al. Senna alexandrina extract supplementation reverses hepatic oxidative, inflammatory, and apoptotic effects of cadmium chloride administration in rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2019) doi:10.1007/s11356-019-07117-3

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Keywords

  • Senna alexandrina
  • Cadmium
  • Oxidative stress
  • Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2
  • Inflammation
  • Apoptosis
  • Liver