Quantitatively ranking the influencing factors of ammonia volatilization from paddy soils by grey relational entropy

  • Wen-Ming Xie
  • Shi-Jun Li
  • Wei-Ming Shi
  • Hai-Lin Zhang
  • Fang Fang
  • Guo-Xiang Wang
  • Li-Min ZhangEmail author
Research Article


Ammonia (NH3) volatilization from paddy soils is a main source of atmospheric NH3 and the magnitude is affected by many factors. Because of the complex field condition, it is difficult to identify the relative importance of individual factor on NH3 volatilization process in different locations and at different times. In this study, the grey relational entropy method was used to evaluate the relative impact of four main factors (i.e., nitrogen fertilizer application rate, NH4-N concentration, pH, and temperature of the floodwater) on NH3 volatilization loss from three different field experiments. The results demonstrated that floodwater NH4-N concentration was the most important factor governing NH3 volatilization process. Floodwater pH was the second most important factor, followed by temperature of the floodwater and nitrogen fertilizer application rate. We further validated the grey relational entropy method with NH3 volatilization loss data from other published study and confirmed the order of importance for the four factors. We hope the findings of this study will be helpful for guiding design to reduce paddy soil NH3 emission.


Ammonia volatilization Paddy soil Influencing factors Grey relational entropy 


Funding information

This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51778301; 51408587), the Key Special Program on the S&T for the Pollution Control (2017ZX07202004), the Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province (KYCX18_1246), and the Special Environmental Research Fund for Public Welfare of the State Environmental Protection Administration of China (201309035).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_6952_MOESM1_ESM.docx (29 kb)
ESM1 (DOCX 28 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wen-Ming Xie
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shi-Jun Li
    • 1
  • Wei-Ming Shi
    • 2
  • Hai-Lin Zhang
    • 3
  • Fang Fang
    • 4
  • Guo-Xiang Wang
    • 1
  • Li-Min Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of EnvironmentNanjing Normal UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable AgricultureInstitute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of SciencesNanjingChina
  3. 3.Department of Plant and Soil SciencesOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA
  4. 4.College of EnvironmentHohai UniversityNanjingChina

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