Selected food processing techniques as a factor for pesticide residue removal in apple fruit

  • Magdalena Słowik-BorowiecEmail author
  • Ewa Szpyrka
Research Article


In this study, various food processing techniques, including high-temperature processes (pasteurization/sterilization and boiling), low-temperature processes (freezing), mechanical processing (peeling and juicing), and water-based processes (washing with tap water and ultrasonic washing) were used to identify the most effective way to remove contamination of 5 fungicides (cyprodinil, difenoconazole, fluopyram, tebuconazole, and fludioxonil). The most effective processes were juicing and freezing in the range between 63 and 100% and from 52 to almost 100%, respectively. Ultrasonic washing and boiling also significantly removed pesticide residues ranging from 79 to 84% and from 72 to 78%, respectively. The same trend was observed by peeling process where maximum reduction of 80% was achieved almost for all fungicides. Washing with tap water decreased the concentration levels in the range of 35–38%. This study demonstrated that the least effective and unpredictable method of decontamination of pesticides was sterilization and pasteurization, due to the large variation in pesticide levels during the process.


Pesticide residue Food processing Apple Processing factor PF Removal pesticide 


Funding information

This study was supported by Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego, project ID: SRZ-08).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_6943_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 15 kb).
11356_2019_6943_MOESM2_ESM.docx (15 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 15 kb).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Biology and BiotechnologyUniversity of RzeszowRzeszówPoland
  2. 2.Regional Experimental StationThe Institute of Plant Protection – National Research InstituteRzeszówPoland

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