Pollution evaluation, spatial distribution, and source apportionment of trace metals around coal mines soil: the case study of eastern India Research Article First Online: 16 January 2020 Abstract
The degradation of land by trace metals contamination around coal mining areas is a serious environmental issue, and therefore, it is necessary to have detailed information about the pollution caused by them and their sources. The objective of the work was to study the impact of trace metals (e.g., Cd, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, Pb, and Cu) on the soil of Jharia coalfield to analyze their sources, contamination level, and their spatial distribution. The present values of the trace metals were compared by their natural background values which were then analyzed on the scale of the Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI) and by Improved Nemerow Index (L
nm). The results of spatial distribution revealed that the majority of the soil in Jharia coalfield is moderately contaminated, a small portion of it is slightly contaminated, and altogether at moderate ecological risk due to trace metals. Multivariate statistical techniques including Principal component analysis, Cluster analysis, and Pearson’s correlation evaluated that Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, and Cr in the soil samples had the same source which is coal mining; Pb and Cd were from multiple sources. The spatial distribution maps of trace metals present in the soil of Jharia coalfield were generated using Radial basis function an interpolation method. Keywords Jharia coalfield Trace metals Radial basis function Multivariate statistical analysis Improved Nemerow Index Potential Toxicity Response Index (RI)
Responsible editor: Kitae Baek
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (
) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06915-z Notes Acknowledgments
Authors are thankful to the CSIR-Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research (CIMFR) Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India for providing the lab facilities for the analysis and Indian Institute of Technology-Indian School of Mines (ISM) -Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India for providing the infrastructure to carry out this work.
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