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The occurrence and risk assessment of phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in Egypt’s drinking and source water

  • Emad K. RadwanEmail author
  • M. B.M. Ibrahim
  • Ahmed Adel
  • Mohamed Farouk
Research Article

Abstract

This is the first nationwide survey of bisphenol A (BPA), methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, and o-phenylphenol, in Egypt’s water. Five hundred fifty-five water samples were collected from source water (SW, 109 samples) and drinking water (DW, 446 samples) of twenty-three Egyptian governorates. These chemicals were determined by direct ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) analysis of a filtered aliquot of samples. The impacts of the measured concentrations on the aquatic organisms and human health were evaluated as well. BPA, methylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben were frequently detected in SW and DW, while ethylparaben and o-phenylphenol were not detected whatsoever. The most frequently detected endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) was BPA in SW and methylparaben in DW. The recorded highest concentrations of BPA and methylparaben in SW and BPA and methylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben in DW were the highest worldwide. Of the investigated twenty-three governorates, the SW and DW of Aswan, Red Sea, Cairo, Sharqia, and Damietta were free of the studied EDCs. Contrarily, BPA, MeP, PrP, and BuP were detected in Sohag’s SW and DW. A detection ratio > 70% was recorded in SW of Faiyum, Dakahlia, and Ismailia, and > 90% in DW of Sohag, Port Said, Dakahlia, and Faiyum. The environmental risk assessment results excluded any human health risk even in the worst-case scenario and showed that BPA represents the highest risk to the aquatic organisms.

Keywords

Contaminants of emerging concern Pharmaceuticals Personal care products Bisphenol A Parabens 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the staff of the Reference Laboratory for drinking water for providing the facilities to achieve this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_6887_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (374 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 374 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Water Pollution Research DepartmentNational Research CentreGizaEgypt
  2. 2.Reference Laboratory for Drinking Water, Holding Company for Water and WastewaterShubra El-Khima Water Treatment PlantCairoEgypt

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