Increase in water temperature increases acute toxicity of sumithion causing nuclear and cellular abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of zebrafish Danio rerio
- 25 Downloads
Global warming and indiscriminate usages of pesticides are notable concern to all. The present study has been conducted to evaluate the effects of high temperature on acute toxicity of sumithion in adult zebrafish. A 2-day renewal bioassay system was used to determine the 96 h LC50 value of sumithion at three temperature regimes, such as 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C. Blood glucose (mg/dL) level was measured in control (0.0 mg/L) and low concentration (1.0 mg/L) of sumithion during the determination of LC50 in three temperature conditions. In addition, micronucleus (MN), erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA), and erythrocytic cellular abnormalities (ECA) tests were performed in the blood erythrocytes. The 96 h LC50 value of sumithion for zebrafish was significantly lower at 35 °C, which indicates that the toxicity of sumithion increases at higher temperature. Blood glucose level was significantly increased by sumithion in all temperature conditions, while it was significantly higher in the highest (35 °C) temperature compared to the lowest (25 °C) temperature in both control and sumithion-treated fish. Similarly, frequencies of MN, ENA, and ECA were elevated by sumithion in all temperature conditions, whereas it was significantly raised in the highest (35 °C) temperature compared to the lowest (25 °C) temperature in both control and sumithion treated fish. With increasing temperature in exposure to sumithion, dissolved oxygen decreased significantly, whereas free CO2 increased significantly. On the other hand, no distinct changes were observed in pH and total alkalinity during the experimental period. Therefore, it can be inferred that increasing temperature enhances the toxicity of sumithion in the zebrafish.
KeywordsZebrafish Temperature Pesticide Blood glucose Erythrocytes Responsible Editor: Philippe Garrigues
We are grateful to Dr. M Sadiqul Islam (Department of Fisheries Biology and Genetics, BAU, Mymensingh) for his technical support.
This work was supported by the grants from Bangladesh Agricultural University Research System (2017/282/BAU) and Ministry of Education (2017/503/MoE) to the corresponding author (Md. Shahjahan).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Alexander IV, Polychronis DS, Manolis NT, Persefoni F, Fotini V, Maria T, Galateia D, John T, Athanasios KA, Christina T, Valerii NR, Felix C, Aristidis MT (2016) Long-term exposure to cypermethrin and piperonyl butoxide cause liver and kidney inflammation and induce genotoxicity in New Zealand white male rabbits. Food Chem Toxicol 94:250–259Google Scholar
- APHA, American public health association (2005) In: Eaton AE, Clesceri LS, Rice EW, Greenberg AE (eds) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21st edn, Centennial Edition. APHA, AWWA, WEF, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Avrova NF (1999) Biochemical mechanisms of adaptation to changing conditions of environment in vertebrates: Role of lipids. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol 35:170–180Google Scholar
- Bai MM, Divya K, Haseena BSK, Sailaja G, Sandhya D, Thyagaraju K (2014) Evaluation of genotoxic and lipid peroxidation effect of cadmium in developing chick embryos. J Environ Anal Toxicol 4:6Google Scholar
- Banaee M, Mirvaghefi AR, Mojazi AB, Rafiee GR, Nematdost B (2011) Hematological and histopathological effects of Diazinon Poisoning in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). IranJ Nat Res 64(1):1–13Google Scholar
- Barman RP (1991) A taxonomic revision of the Indo-Burmese species of Danio rerio. Record of the Zoological Survey of India Occasional Papers- Zool Sur India 137:1–91Google Scholar
- Cech JJ, Brauner CJ (2011) Respiration: an introduction. In: Farrell AP (ed) Encyclopedia of fish physiology: from genome to environment. Elsevier, pp 791–795Google Scholar
- Faria IS, Palumbo AJ, Fojut TL, Tjeerdema RS (2010) Water quality reports for malathion, Phase III: application of pesticide water quality criteria methodology. University of California, UCDAVISGoogle Scholar
- Ghaffar A, Rani K, Hussain R, Mehreen M, Rubi T, Yasin S (2015) Histopathological and serum biochemical changes induced by sub-chronic doses of triazophos in quail. Pak Vet J 35(1):13–17Google Scholar
- Kreps EM (1981) Lipidy kletochnykh membran (Lipids of Cell Membranes). Leningrad.Google Scholar
- McIntyre DO (1988) The effect of temperature on uptake rate constants, depuration rate constants and bioconcentration factors (BCF) for six organochlorines in the aquatic insect, Chironomus riparius. Ph.D. thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus, OHGoogle Scholar
- Meister RT (1992) Farm chemicals handbook ‘92. Meister Publishing Company, WilloughbyGoogle Scholar
- Ruane NM, Nolan DT, Rotllant J, Costelloe J, Wendelaar BSE (2000) Experimental exposure of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) to the infective stages of the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kroyer) influences the physiological response to an acute stressor. Fish Shellfish Immunol 10(5):451–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Salam MA, Shahjahan M, Sharmin S, Haque F, Rahman MK (2015) Effects of sub-lethal doses of an organophosphorus insecticide sumithion on some hematological parameters in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Pak J Zool 47(5):1487–1491Google Scholar
- Sharmin S, Shahjahan M, Hossain MA, Haque MA, Rashid H (2015) Histopathological changes in liver and kidney of common carp exposed to sub-lethal doses of malathion. Pak J Zool 47(5):1495–1498Google Scholar
- Thenmozhi C, Vignesh V, Thirumurugan R, Arun S (2011) Impacts of malathion on mortality and biochemical changes of freshwater fish Labeo rohita. J Environ Health Sci Eng 8(4):393–400Google Scholar
- Thomson WT (1989) Agricultural Chemicals. Book I: Insecticides. Thomson Publications, Fresno 120 ppGoogle Scholar
- Vardavas AI, Stivaktakis PD, Tzatzarakis MN, Fragkiadaki P, Vasilaki F, Tzardi M, Datseri G, Tsiaoussis J, Alegakis AK, Tsitsimpikou C, Rakitskii VN, Carvalho F, Tsatsakis AM (2016) Long-term exposure to cypermethrin and piperonyl butoxide cause liver and kidney inflammation and induce genotoxicity in New Zealand white male rabbits. Food Chem Toxicol 94:250–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Winkaler EU, Santos TRM, Joaquim G, Machado-Neto JG, Martinez CBR (2007) Acute lethal and sublethal effects of neem leaf extract on the neotropical freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus. Comp Biochem Physiol C 145:236–244Google Scholar
- Worthing CR (1987) The pesticide manual: a world compendium, 8th edn. Published by The British Crop Protection CouncilGoogle Scholar