Advertisement

Characteristics and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in restaurants in Shanghai

  • Xiqian Huang
  • Deming Han
  • Jinping ChengEmail author
  • Xiaojia Chen
  • Yong Zhou
  • Haoxiang Liao
  • Wei Dong
  • Chao Yuan
Research Article
  • 67 Downloads

Abstract

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors of ozone and atmospheric particulates that have attracted extensive attention worldwide. Cooking emissions, the chemical characteristics of which vary dramatically due to different cooking styles, are a main source of ambient VOCs, especially in large cities. This research focused on the emission characteristics of VOCs from six types of restaurants in Shanghai: hot pot (HP), Sichuan cuisine (SC), Cantonese cuisine (CS), seafood (SF), Western fast food (WFF), and authentic Shanghai cuisine (ASC). It was found that HP, which discharged cooking fumes indoors, produced the highest mass concentration of VOCs (1900.2 ± 364.8 μg m−3), followed by SC (1403.7 ± 403.8 μg m−3), WFF (656.0 ± 156.9 μg m−3), SF (638.6 ± 145.1 μg m−3), CC (632.7 ± 127.7 μg m−3), and ASC (612.3 ± 51.3 μg m−3), the cooking fumes from which were collected by emission extraction stacks. Additionally, the VOC species from each cuisine were mainly low carbon substances. Alkanes were the major VOC pollutants from all six cuisines, accounting for 34.4–71.7%. The coefficient divergence values were 0.287–0.593, suggesting that there were differences between the cuisines in the present study. Ozone formation potential and secondary organic aerosol formation potential indicated that O-VOCs and aromatics were the largest contributors. Health risk assessment of VOCs via non-carcinogenic risk values (HQ) and carcinogenic risk values (RISK) indicated that frying, grilling, and stir-frying had relatively large impacts on human health. VOCs collected in emission extraction stacks were significantly higher risk compared with those in the indoor environment, but the RISK score of the HP restaurant was larger, second only to SC. The HQ and RISK values of 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, and trichloroethylene in the HP restaurant all exceeded US EPA standards, indicating that long-term exposure in an HP restaurant would have a significant impact on human health and might carry a potential cancer risk.

Keywords

Cooking emission Volatile organic compounds Ozone formation potential Secondary organic aerosol Health risk assessment Shanghai 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported financially by the Key Special Project of China Institute for Urban Governance, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (No. SJTU-2019 UGBD-01) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21777094 and No. 21577090).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_6881_MOESM1_ESM.docx (43 kb)
Esm 1 (DOCX 42 kb)

References

  1. Ait-Helal W, Borbon A, Sauvage S et al (2014) Volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds in suburban Paris: variability, origin and importance for SOA formation. Atmos Chem Phys 14(4):10439–10464.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-10439-2014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ministry of Environmental Protection of P.R.C (2014) Ambient air-determination of aldehyde and ketone compounds-high performance liquid chromatography (in Chinese). HJ683-2014. China Environmental Science PressGoogle Scholar
  3. Carter WPL (2010) Development of the SAPRC-07 chemical mechanism. Atmos Environ 44:5324–5335.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.01.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheng JC, Cui T, He WQ et al (2015) Pollution characteristics of aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of Beijing typical restaurants (in Chinese). Environ Sci 8:2743–2749.  https://doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.2015.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng S, Wang G, Lang J et al (2016) Characterization of volatile organic compounds from different cooking emissions. Atmos Environ 145:299–307.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.09.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ministry of Environmental Protection of P.R.C (2015) Ambient air-determination of volatile organic compounds-collected by specially-prepared canisters and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (in Chinese). HJ759-2015. China Environmental Science PressGoogle Scholar
  7. Chung TY, Eiserich JP, Shibamoto T (1993) Volatile compounds identified in headspace sample of peanut oil heated under temperature ranging from 50 to 200 °C. J Agric Food Chem 41:1467–1470.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00033a022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cui T, Cheng JC, He WQ (2015) Emission characteristics of VOCs from typical restaurants in Beijing (in Chinese). Environ Sci 36:1523–1529.  https://doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.2015.05.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Derwent RG, Jenkin ME, Utembe SR, Shallcross DE, Murrells TP, Passant NR (2010) Secondary organic aerosol formation from a large number of reactive man-made organic compounds. Sci Total Environ 408:3374–3381.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.04.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Duan J, Tan J, Yang L et al (2008) Concentration, sources and ozone formation potential of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during ozone episode in Beijing. Atmos Res 88:25–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2007.09.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. EPA US (1998) Integrated risk information system. https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris_drafts/atoz.cfm?list_type=alpha. Accessed 20 March 2019Google Scholar
  12. Gentner DR, Jathar SH, Gordon TD et al (2016) A review of urban secondary organic aerosol formation from gasoline and diesel motor vehicle emissions. Environ Sci Technol 51:1074–1093.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b04509 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gouw JAD, Middlebrook AM, Warneke C et al (2011) Organic aerosol formation downwind from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. SCIENCE 331:1295–1299.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1200320 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Grosjean D, Seinfeld JH (1989) Parameterization of the formation potential of secondary organic aerosols. Atmos Environ 23:1733–1747.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(89)90058-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. GROSJEAN (1992) In situ organic aerosol formation during a smog episode: estimated production and chemical functionality. Atmos Environ 26:953–963.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0960-1686(92)90027-I CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Han D, Gao S, Fu Q et al (2018) Do volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from petrochemical industries affect regional PM 2.5? Atmos Res 209:123–130.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2018.04.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Han D, Wang Z, Cheng J, Wang Q, Chen X, Wang H (2017) Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during non-haze and haze days in Shanghai: characterization and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 24:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9433-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hildemann LM, Markowski GR, Cass GR (1991) Chemical composition of emissions from urban sources of fine organic aerosol. Environ Sci Technol 25:744–759.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es00016a021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ho SSH, Yu JZ, Chu KW, Yeung LL (2006) Carbonyl emissions from commercial cooking sources in Hong Kong. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 56:1091–1098.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10473289.2006.10464532 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Huang Y, Ho SS, Ho KF, Lee SC, Yu JZ, Louie PK (2011) Characteristics and health impacts of VOCs and carbonyls associated with residential cooking activities in Hong Kong. J Hazard Mater 186:344–351.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ji Y (2006) Study on the soil dust profiles for source apportionment of ambient particulate matter. Nankai University, TianjinGoogle Scholar
  22. Kumar A, Singh D, Kumar K et al (2017) Distribution of VOCs in urban and rural atmospheres of subtropical India: temporal variation, source attribution, ratios, OFP and risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 613-614:492.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.096 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lee SC, Li W, Yin Chan L (2001) Indoor air quality at restaurants with different styles of cooking in metropolitan Hong Kong. Sci Total Environ 279:181–193.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00765-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu Y, Shao M, Lu S et al (2008) Volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China. Atmos Chem Phys 8:1531–1545.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-1531-2008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Louie PKK, Ho JWK, Tsang RCW et al (2013) VOCs and OVOCs distribution and control policy implications in Pearl River Delta region, China. Atmos Environ 76:125–135.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.08.058 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Loh MM, Houseman EA, Gray GM et al (2006) Measured concentrations of VOCs in several non-residential microenvironments in the United States. Environ Sci Technol 22:6903–6911.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es060197g CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mugica V, Vega E, Chow J et al (2001) Speciated non-methane organic compounds emissions from food cooking in Mexico. Atmos Environ 35:1729–1734.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00538-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gressev P, Nokes C, Lake R (2008) Chlorinated compounds formed during chlorine wash of chicken meat. Institute of Environmental Science & Research Limited, ChristchurchGoogle Scholar
  29. Rogge WF, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA et al (1991) Sources of fine organic aerosol. 1. Charbroilers and meat cooking operations. Environ Sci Technol 25:1112–1125.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es00018a015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schauer JJ, Kleeman MJ, Cass GR et al (2002) Measurement of emissions from air pollution sources. 4. C1-C27 organic compounds from cooking with seed oils. Environ Sci Technol 36:567.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es002053m CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Singh A, Chandrasekharan NK, Kamal R et al (2016) Assessing hazardous risks of indoor airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the kitchen and its association with lung functions and urinary PAH metabolites in kitchen workers. Clin Chim Acta 452:204–213.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2015.11.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Svecova V, Topinka J, Solansky I, Sram RJ (2012) Personal exposure to volatile organic compounds in the Czech Republic. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 22:455–460.  https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2012.30 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. US EPA (1999) Compendium method TO-15 determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air collected in specially-prepared canisters and analyzed by GC/MSGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang H, Xiang Z, Wang L et al (2018) Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cooking and their speciation: a case study for Shanghai with implications for China. Sci Total Environ 621:1300–1309.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12929-017-0338-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wongphatarakul V, Friedlander SK, Pinto JP (1998) A comparative study of PM 2.5 ambient aerosol chemical databases. J Aerosol Sci 29:S115–S116.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-8502(98)00164-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xiang Z, Wang H, Stevanovic S et al (2017) Assessing impacts of factors on carbonyl compounds emissions produced from several typical Chinese cooking (in Chinese). Build Environ 2017(125):348–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang XY, Shi JWS, Bai ZP et al (2011) Measurement of VOCs emissions from cooking in Shenyang City (in Chinese). China Pollution, Resource and Environment 3:364–366Google Scholar
  38. Liang YK (2004) Study on the composition, endanger and purification technology of cooking fumes from catering industry (in Chinese). Energy and Environment 1:43–44Google Scholar
  39. Yi C, Kin Fai H, Ho SSH et al (2007) Gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions from commercial restaurants in Hong Kong. J Environ Monit 9:1402.  https://doi.org/10.1039/B710259C CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhang BY, Yang YZ (2006) Discussion on the composition, harm and preventing and controlling methods of the cooking oil fumes (in Chinese). Sichuan Food And Ferment 42:14–18Google Scholar
  41. Zhang C, Ma Y (2011) Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons emitted from Chinese cooking. Acta Sci Circumst 31:1768–1775.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60313-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhang Z, Friedlander SK (2000) A comparative study of chemical databases for fine particle Chinese aerosols. Environ Sci Technol 34:4687–4694.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es001147t CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiqian Huang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Deming Han
    • 1
  • Jinping Cheng
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Xiaojia Chen
    • 1
  • Yong Zhou
    • 1
  • Haoxiang Liao
    • 1
  • Wei Dong
    • 3
  • Chao Yuan
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Environmental Science and EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.China-UK Low Carbon CollegeShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Baosteel Engineering & Technology Group Co., Ltd.ShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations