Biochemical activity of soil contaminated with BPS, bioaugmented with a mould fungi consortium and a bacteria consortium

  • Magdalena Zaborowska
  • Jadwiga WyszkowskaEmail author
  • Jan Kucharski
Research Article


This study analysed the scale of bisphenol S (BPS) toxicity to the soil biochemical activity and is part of a wider effort to find solutions to restore the global soil environment balance, including elimination of the effects of ecosystem pollution with BPA, of which BPS is a significant analogue. However, since there has been no research on the effect of BPS on soil health, the objective of the study was pursued based on increasing the levels of soil contamination with the bisphenol 0, 5, 50 and 500 mg BPS kg−1 DM of soil and by observing the response of seven soil enzymes: dehydrogenases, catalase, urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulphatase and β-glucosidase to the growing BPS pressure. The potential negative effect of bisphenol S was offset by bioaugmentation with a bacteria consortium—Pseudomonas umsongensis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus weihenstephanensis and Bacillus subtilis—and a fungi consortium Mucor circinelloides, Penicillium daleae, Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger. BPS was found to be a significant inhibitor of the soil enzymatic activity and, in consequence, its fertility. Dehydrogenases and acid phosphatase proved to be the most susceptible to BPS pressure. Bioaugmentation with a bacteria consortium offset the negative effect of 500 mg BPS kg−1 DM of soil by inducing an increase in the activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase, whereas the fungi consortium stimulated the activity of β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase. A spectacular dimension of bisphenol S inhibition corresponded with both the spring rape above-ground parts and root development disorders and the content of Ca and K in them. The BPS level in soil on day 5 of the experiment decreased by 61% and by another 19% on day 60.


BPS  Soil enzymes Bioaugmentation Bacterial consortium Mould fungi consortium 


Funding information

The research was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education funds for statutory activity and co-financed by the National Science Center (Project MINIATURA1). The project was financially supported by Minister of Science and Higher Education in the range of the programme entitled “Regional Initiative of Excellence” for the years 2019–2022, Project No. 010/RID/2018/19, amount of funding 12.000.000 PLN.”

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of Warmia and Mazury in OlsztynOlsztynPoland

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