Thiamethoxam-mediated alteration in multi-biomarkers of a model organism, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

  • Tamer KayisEmail author
  • Murat Altun
  • Mustafa Coskun
Research Article


Thiamethoxam (TMX), a second-generation neonicotinoid, is extensively used to control numerous pests that infest crops. We investigated the effects of TMX (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 μg/mL for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h) on biomarkers such as antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)); malondialdehyde (MDA), protein, lipid, and carbohydrate levels; micronucleus formation; and total hemocyte count in a model organism, Galleria mellonella L. SOD and CAT activities significantly decreased after 72 and 96 h of treatment at all TMX concentrations compared with control. MDA level increased following treatment with all TMX doses, with the exception of that following treatment with the lowest dose (10 μg/mL) at all tested treatment durations. Lipid and carbohydrate levels significantly decreased following treatment with high doses of TMX (40 and 50 μg/mL) after 48, 72, and 96 h. Micronucleated cell number significantly increased following treatment with all TMX doses at all tested treatment durations, except with 10 μg/mL of TMX for 24 h, when compared with control. During the first 72 h, total hemocyte count significantly decreased following treatment with 20-, 30-, 40-, and 50-μg/mL TMX; however, it was significantly reduced at all doses of TMX after 96 h. These results suggest that TMX can induce immunotoxicity, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity in a potential target and also in the model organism, G. mellonella. In addition, our study provides additional information regarding the prospective toxic effects of TMX.


Antioxidant enzymes MDA Micronucleus Total hemocyte count Thiamethoxam Insects 



We thank Dr. Yusuf Sevgiler and Dr. Muhsin Aydin for helpful comments and edits of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of BiologyAdiyaman UniversityAdiyamanTurkey
  2. 2.Institutes of Natural and Applied SciencesAdiyaman UniversityAdiyamanTurkey

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