Movento effects on learning and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein of adult male rats

  • Iman Zangiabadi
  • Mohammad Reza AfarineshEmail author
  • Ali Shamsara
  • Seyed Hasan Eftekhar-VaghefiEmail author
Research Article


Spirotetramat is a toxic commercially known as Movento used to control pistachio psylla pests. In the present study, the effects of Movento on passive avoidance learning of rats and their ability to explore the novel object in the novel object recognition test were investigated. The changes in the concentration of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) proteins were evaluated, too. Male Wistar rats were gavaged at different dosages of the Movento (50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 1250, and 1500 mg/kg) or saline for 7 days (administered every 2 days). We showed that Movento caused 50 and 100% mortality at the dose of 1250 and 1500 mg/kg, respectively. At the dose of 1000 mg/kg, Movento significantly decreased locomotor activity (P < 0.05). These rats also displayed a significant decrease in the number of training trials in the shuttle box and the ability to recognize a novel object compared with the control group (P < 0.01). The BDNF protein level of hippocampus also showed a significant decrease in the Movento (1000 mg/kg) compared with the control group (P < 0.01) while the number of pancellular necrosis pyramidal CA1 cells increased significantly in the Movento group (P < 0.001). We concluded that exposure to Movento can decline sensory, motor, and learning in rats.


Spirotetramat Movento Learning Memory Rat 



This study is extracted from the dissertation of Mr. Iman Zangiabadi as a submitted proposal under ethical code number of IR.KMU.REC.1397.255. The authors also appreciate collaboration of KNRC.

Funding information

This paper received support from the Kerman Neuroscience Research Center (EC/KNRC/95-43).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Ambali SF, Idris SB, Onukak C, Shittu M, Ayo JO (2010) Ameliorative effects of vitamin C on short-term sensorimotor and cognitive changes induced by acute chlorpyrifos exposure in Wistar rats. Toxicol Ind Health 26:547–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ananth C, Thameem Dheen S, Gopalakrishnakone P, Kaur C (2001) Domoic acid-induced neuronal damage in the rat hippocampus: changes in apoptosis related genes (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3) and microglial response. J Neurosci Res 66:177–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antunes M, Biala G (2012) The novel object recognition memory: neurobiology, test procedure, and its modifications. Cogn Process 13:93–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Back S, Peranen J, Galli E, Pulkkila P, Lonka-Nevalaita L, Tamminen T, Voutilainen MH, Raasmaja A, Saarma M, Mannisto PT, Tuominen RK (2013) Gene therapy with AAV2-CDNF provides functional benefits in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Brain Behav 3:75–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bekinschtein P, Cammarota M, Medina JH (2014) BDNF and memory processing. Neuropharmacology 76:677–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Broadbent NJ, Gaskin S, Squire LR, Clark RE (2010) Object recognition memory and the rodent hippocampus. Learn Mem 17:5–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Choi J-S, Cain CK, LeDoux JE (2010) The role of amygdala nuclei in the expression of auditory signaled two-way active avoidance in rats. Learn Mem 17:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohen SJ, Stackman RW Jr (2015) Assessing rodent hippocampal involvement in the novel object recognition task. A review. Behav Brain Res 285:105–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Elfving B, Plougmann PH, Wegener G (2010) Detection of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rat blood and brain preparations using ELISA: pitfalls and solutions. J Neurosci Methods 187:73–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Faraguna U, Vyazovskiy VV, Nelson AB, Tononi G, Cirelli C (2008) A causal role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the homeostatic regulation of sleep. J Neurosci 28:4088–4095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fullwood NJ (2007) Neural stem cells, acetylcholine and Alzheimer’s disease. Nat Chem Biol 3:435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Greenwood BN, Strong PV, Foley TE, Thompson RS, Fleshner M (2007) Learned helplessness is independent of levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus. Elsevier, pp 1193-1208Google Scholar
  13. Guzelian PS (1982) Comparative toxicology of chlordecone (Kepone) in humans and experimental animals. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 22:89–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM, Do B, Jessell MBT, Siegelbaum S, Hudspeth A (2000) Principles of neural science, 4. McGraw-hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Kramar EA, Babayan AH, Gall CM, Lynch G (2013) Estrogen promotes learning-related plasticity by modifying the synaptic cytoskeleton. Neuroscience 239:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Luine V, Frankfurt M (2013) Interactions between estradiol, BDNF and dendritic spines in promoting memory. Neuroscience 239:34–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Malcangio M, Lessmann V (2003) A common thread for pain and memory synapses? Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and trkB receptors. Trends Pharmacol Sci 24:116–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Manber R, Armitage RA (1999) Sex, steroids, and sleep: a review. Sleep 22:540–555Google Scholar
  19. Marcic D, Petronijevic S, Drobnjakovic T, Prijovic M, Peric P, Milenkovic S (2012) The effects of spirotetramat on life history traits and population growth of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Exp Appl Acarol 56:113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. More SV, Kumar H, Cho D-Y, Yun Y-S, Choi D-K (2016) Toxin-induced experimental models of learning and memory impairment. Int J Mol Sci 17:1447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Paxinos G, Watson C (2007): The rat brain in stereotaxic coordinates 44-168Google Scholar
  22. Pesticides A, Authority VM (2009) Evaluation of the new active SPIROTETRAMAT in the product MOVENTO 240 SC INSECTICIDE. APVMA, April, p 9-10Google Scholar
  23. Ramos JM (2000) Long-term spatial memory in rats with hippocampal lesions. Eur J Neurosci 12:3375–3384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ridley R, Timothy C, Maclean C, Baker H (1995) Conditional learning and memory impairments following neurotoxic lesion of the CA1 field of the hippocampus. Neuroscience 67:263–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Roozendaal B, McGaugh JL (2011) Memory modulation. Behav Neurosci 125:797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sarter M, Markowitsch HJ (1985) Involvement of the amygdala in learning and memory: a critical review, with emphasis on anatomical relations. Behav Neurosci 99:342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Scharfman HE, MacLusky NJ (2005) Similarities between actions of estrogen and BDNF in the hippocampus: coincidence or clue? Trends Neurosci 28:79–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Valenzuela A, Nieto S, Sanhueza J, Morgado N, Rojas I, Zañartu P (2010) Supplementing female rats with DHA-lysophosphatidylcholine increases docosahexaenoic acid and acetylcholine contents in the brain and improves the memory and learning capabilities of the pups. Grasas Aceites 61:16–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang T, Zhao L, Liu M, Xie F, Ma X, Zhao P, Liu Y, Li J, Wang M, Yang Z, Zhang Y (2014) Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 280:169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zafra F, Castren E, Thoenen H, Lindholm D (1991) Interplay between glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid transmitter systems in the physiological regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor synthesis in hippocampal neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci 88:10037–10041CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anatomy, School of MedicineKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  2. 2.Kerman Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of NeuropharmachologyKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  3. 3.Kerman Cognitive Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of NeuropharmachologyKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  4. 4.Department of Anatomy, Kerman BranchIslamic Azad UniversityKermanIran

Personalised recommendations