The effect of a glyphosate-based herbicide on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, oxidative stress, and antioxidant status in freshwater amphipod: Gammarus pulex (Crustacean)

  • Ayşegül PalaEmail author
Research Article


This study had determined the effect of glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity, oxidative stress, and antioxidant status in Gammarus pulex. Firstly, the 96-h LC50 value of glyphosate on G. pulex was determined and calculated as 403 μg/L. Subsequently, the organisms were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (10, 20, and 40 μg/L) of the determined GHB for 24 and 96 h. The samples were taken from control and GBH-treated groups at 24 and 96 h of study and analysed to determine the malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, the AChE, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities. In the G. pulex exposed to GBH for 24 and 96 h, the MDA level increased significantly (p < 0.05). The GSH level, the AChE, the CAT, and the GPx activities decreased compared with the control group (p < 0.05). G. pulex exposure to GBH for 24 h showed a temporary reduction in the SOD. GBH exposure led to oxidative stress in the G. pulex as well as affected the cholinergic system of the organism. These results indicated that the parameters measured may be important indicators of herbicide contamination in G. pulex.


Pesticides Glyphosate Invertebrate Gammarus pulex Biomarkers 



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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of FisheriesMunzur UniversityTunceliTurkey

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