The impact of textual and pictorial warnings on tumbac (waterpipe tobacco) boxes on the motivation and intention to quit waterpipe smoking in Lebanon: a cross-sectional study
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Few published studies have examined the impact of waterpipe tobacco pictorial health warnings worldwide but none of these papers assessed the motivation and intention to quit among Lebanese waterpipe smokers. To examine factors associated with the motivation and intention to quit waterpipe smoking (WS) in Lebanon, particularly the impact of textual vs. pictorial warnings on tumbac boxes. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and May 2018, involving 520 participants. Having smokers at work (OR = 0.92) and increasing number of waterpipes per week (ORa = 0.94) were associated with decreased motivation to quit WS. Thinking that shocking images on tumbac packages would have more effect than textual warnings (ORa = 2.96) and those who would change the tumbac if the company decides to change the look of the box with shocking images about health damage (ORa = 1.98) were significantly associated with increased motivation to quit WS. Having a high motivation (ORa = 2.61), thinking that using shocking images on tumbac boxes can have more effect than textual warnings (ORa = 2.12), those who stopped smoking because of the warnings (ORa = 2.62), those who would choose pictorial warnings alone (ORa = 2.11), and both pictorial and textual warnings (ORa = 3.41) on tumbac packages were associated with higher intention to quit WS in two months. Pictorial and textual warnings on tumbac packs were associated with higher intention and motivation to stop WS. Public health education programs for this purpose seem warranted.
KeywordsWaterpipe Motivation Intention to quit Pictorial warning Textual warning
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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