Transport and distribution of manganese in tidal estuarine system in Taiwan

  • Wen-Cheng LiuEmail author
  • Poi-Jiu Ken
  • Hong-Ming Liu
Research Article


Based on the observed heavy metals in the Danshui River estuarine system, the concentration of manganese (Mn) exceeds the water quality standards. High concentrations of manganese in aquatic environment can cause disturbances in the sodium balance, disturb the metabolism of carbohydrates, and impair the immunological functions of fish. Therefore, a three-dimensional heavy metal transport model was developed and incorporated into the hydrodynamics, salinity, and suspended sediment transport model to evaluate the concentration distribution of the heavy metal manganese (Mn) in the Danshui River estuarine system of northern Taiwan. The model was validated with observational data for water level, tidal current, salinity, suspended sediment concentration, and heavy metal (Mn) concentration that was measured in 2015. The indicators of statistical error, including mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and skill score (SS), were adopted to evaluate the model performance. There was good quantitative agreement between the simulation results and measurements. Sensitivity analysis of suspended sediment and heavy metal transport model was carried out to understand which parameters were important to be cautiously determined. Furthermore, the validated model was used to investigate the influence of suspended sediment on the concentration distribution of heavy metals (Mn) in tidal estuaries. If the suspended sediment transport module was excluded in model simulations, the predicted results for the heavy metal (Mn) concentration underestimated the measured data. The modeling results showed that the inclusion of the suspended sediment transport module in the model simulations was critically important to the results of the heavy metal (Mn) concentration in the tidal estuarine system in Taiwan.


Heavy metal transport Hydrodynamics Suspended sediment Estuary Three-dimensional model 



The authors would like to express their appreciation to the Taiwan Water Resources Agency and the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration for providing the observational data. The authors also thank Dr. W. B. Chen of the National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction for setting up the suspended sediment and heavy metal transport model. Two anonymous reviewers are thanked for their constructive comments to substantially improve the paper.

Funding information

This study was partially supported by funding from the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan, under grant no. 105-2625-M-239-MY2.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Disaster Prevention EngineeringNational United UniversityMiaoliTaiwan

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