Advertisement

Investigation of particulate matter by FTIR, TEM and elemental analyses in a diesel engine operating on diesel and waste cooking oil-biodiesel

  • Yahya UlusoyEmail author
Research Article
  • 43 Downloads

Abstract

This study investigated the use of a blend of waste vegetable oil and diesel fuel in a diesel tractor engine by comparing the resulting particulate matter (PM) collected on a filter with the PM of diesel fuel. To this purpose, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and elemental analyses were carried out and the PM collected on the filters was examined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The study also investigated the overall morphology of soot particles from the blend of 75% waste cooking oil (WCO) + 25% diesel (B75) in a diesel engine at three different loads (75%, 50% and 10%) compared with the morphology of the soot particles from diesel fuel (B0). The FTIR spectra of the B75 fuel exhibited the characteristic regions of oxygen bonds. Compared to the B0 fuel, the increased oxidation from the excess oxygen in the B75 fuel reduced the size and number of soot particles. It was also verified that the degree of unsaturation was related to the oxygen content of the B75 fuel. The FTIR spectra of the B75 fuel showed a C = O tensile band methyl ester in 1734 cm−1 and C–O bands at 1214–1362 cm−1. Furthermore, similar FTIR spectra were seen for the diesel fuel (B0) and the B75 fuel. The results showed a significant reduction in soot particle emissions with the WCO-diesel blend. The results of this research have enabled a better evaluation of the effects of different fuel usage on diesel engine combustion performance and emission characteristics.

Keywords

Biodiesel diesel emissions Combustion particles Environmental pollution PM FTIR SEM 

Notes

References

  1. Agarwal AK (2007) Biofuels (alcohols and biodiesel) applications as fuels for internal combustion engines. Prog Energy Combust Sci. 33(3):233–271.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2006.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwal AK, Gupta T, Kothari A (2011) Particulate emissions from biodiesel vs diesel fuelled compression ignition engine. Renew Sust Energy Rev. 15:3278–3300.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.04.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alkaya B, Yıldırım M (2000) Reduction methods of vehicle based pollutants. ÇEV-KOR Ekoloji Çevre Dergisi. 34(9):15–20Google Scholar
  4. Arslan R (2011) Emission characteristics of a diesel engine using waste cooking oil as biodiesel fuel. Afr J Biotechnol 10(19):3790–3794.  https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB10.2202 ISSN 1684–5315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barrios CC, Domínguez-Sáez A, Martín C, Álvarez P (2014) Effects of animal fat based biodiesel on a TDI diesel engine performance, combustion characteristics and particle number and size distribution emissions. Fuel. 117:618–623.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.09.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benjumea P, Agudelo JR, Agudelo AF (2011) Effect of the degree of unsaturation of biodiesel fuels on engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions. Energy  & Fuel. 25:77–85.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ef101096x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Betha R, Balasubramanian R (2011) Emissions of particulate-bound elements from stationary diesel engine: Characterization and risk assessment. Atmos Environ. 45(30):5273–5281.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.06.060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boehman AL, Song J, Alam M (2005) Impact of biodiesel blending on diesel soot and the regeneration of particulate filters. Energy & Fuel. 19: 1857–64.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ef0500585 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bouilly J, Mohammadi A, Iida Y, Hashimoto H, Geivanidis S, Samaras Z (2012) Biodiesel stability and its effects on diesel fuel injection equipment (No. 2012-01-0860). SAE Technical PaperGoogle Scholar
  10. Çanakcı M, Özsezen AN (2005) Evaluating waste cooking oils as alternative diesel fuel. Gazi University Journal of Science 18(1):81–91Google Scholar
  11. Cherng-Yuan L, Lin HA (2007) Engine performance and emission characteristics of a three-phase emulsion of biodiesel produced by peroxidation. Fuel Process Technol 88(1):35–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2006.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chien YC, Lu M, Chai M, Boreo FJ (2009) Characterization of biodiesel and biodiesel particulate matter by TG, TG–MS, and FTIR. Energy & Fuel. 2009; 23: 202–6.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ef800388m CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eastwood P (2008) Particulate Emissions from Vehicles. Vol. 20. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., UKGoogle Scholar
  14. Elbir T, Bayram A, Kara M, Altıok H, Seyfioğlu R, Erün P, Şimşir S (2010) Examination of air pollution caused by road traffic in İzmir city center. DEU Mühendislik Fak. Fen Mühendislik Dergisi. 12(1):1–17Google Scholar
  15. Giakoumis EG, Rakopoulos CD, Dimaratos AM, Rakopoulos DC (2012) Exhaust emissions of diesel engines operating under transient conditions with biodiesel fuel blends. Prog Energy Combust Sci. 38(5):691–715.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2012.05.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hurt RH, Sarofim AF, Longwell JP (1993) Gasification-induced densification of carbons: from soot to form coke. Combust Flame 95:430–432.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-2180(93)90009-R CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hurt RH, Crawford GP, Shim HS (2000) Equilibrium nanostructure of primary soot particles. Proc Combust Inst 28(2):2539–2546.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0082-0784(00)80670-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jung H, Kittelson DB, Zachariah MR (2006) Characteristics of SME biodiesel-fueled diesel particle emissions and the kinetics of oxidation. Environ Sci Technol. 40(16):4949–4955.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es0515452 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kalligeros S, Zannikos F, Stournas S, Lois E, Anastopoulos G, Teas C, Sakellaropoulos F (2003) An investigation of using biodiesel/marine diesel blends on the performance of a stationary diesel engine. Biomass Bioenergy. 24(2):141–149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0961-9534(02)00092-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaplan C, Arslan R, Sürmen A (2006) Performance characteristics of sunflower methyl esters as biodiesel. Energy Sources. 28(8):751–755.  https://doi.org/10.1080/009083190523415 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Karabulut M, Sayın C (2015) Investigation of the effects of biodiesel usage on performance and emissions in an agricultural tractor with three cylinder engine. XIII. Otomotiv ve Yan Sanayi Sempozyumu ve Sergisi. 13-14 Kasım: Maltepe / İstanbulGoogle Scholar
  22. Karin P, Songsaengchan Y, Laosuwan S, Charoenphonphanich C, Chollacoop N, Katsunori H (2013) Nanostructure investigation of particle emission by using TEM image processing method. Energy Procedia. 34:757–766.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.811 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Karin P, Boonsakda J, Siricholathum K, Saenkhumvong E, Charoenphonphanich C, Hanamura K (2017) Morphology and oxidation kinetics of CI engine’s biodiesel particulate matters on cordierite diesel particulate filters using TGA. Int J Auto Tech. 18(1):31–40.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12239-017-0003-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kittelson DB (1998) Engines and nanoparticles: a review. J Aerosol Sci. 29(5-6):575–588.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-8502(97)10037-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Knothe G, Dunn RO, Bagby MO (1997) Biodiesel: The use of vegetable oils and their derivatives as alternative diesel fuels. ACS Symposium Series 666:172–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kohse-Höinghaus K, Oßwald P, Cool TA, Kasper T, Hansen N, Qi F, Westbrook CK, Westmoreland PR (2010) Biofuel combustion chemistry: from ethanol to biodiesel. Angew Chem Int Ed. 49:3572–3597.  https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201001648 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kumar A, Kim DS, Omidvarborna H, Kuppili SK (2014) Combustion chemistry of biodiesel for use in urban transport buses: experiment and modeling.(No. CA-MNTRC-14-1146),.Mineta National Transit Research Consortium, (URL: http://transweb.sjsu.edu/PDFs/research/1146-biodiesel-busfuel-combustion-chemistry.pdf). Accessed 10 Jan 2019
  28. Lai JY, Lin KC, Violi A (2011) Biodiesel combustion: advances in chemical kinetic modeling. Prog Energy Combust Sci. 37(1):1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2010.03.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lapuerta M, Agudelo JR, Rodríguez-Fernández J (2008a) Diesel particulate emissions from used cooking oil biodiesel. Bioresour Technol. 99:731–740.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.01.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lapuerta M, Armas O, Rodriguez-Fernandez J (2008b) Effect of biodiesel fuels on diesel engine emissions. Prog Energy Combust Sci. 34(2):198–223.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2007.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lapuerta M, Oliva F, Agudelo JR, Boehman AL (2012) Effect of fuel on the soot nanostructure and consequences on loading and regeneration of diesel particulate filters. Combust Flame. 159:844–853.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2011.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Leung DYC, Guo Y (2006) Transesterification of neat and used frying oil: optimization for biodiesel production. Fuel Process Technol. 87(10):883–890.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2006.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liang F, Lu M, Keener TC, Liu Z, Khang SJ (2005) The organic composition of diesel particulate matter, diesel fuel and engine oil of a non-road diesel generator. J Environ Monitor. 7(10):983–988.  https://doi.org/10.1039/b504728e CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Neeft J, Makkeem P, Moulijn J (1996) Diesel particulate emission control, review article. Fuel Process Technol 47(1):1–69.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3820(96)01002-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Öğüt H, Oğuz H, Bacak S, Mengeş HO, Köse A, Eryılmaz T (2012) Investigation of the characteristics of biodiesel from Balcı species of safflower. Journal of Agricultural Machinery Science. 8(3):297–300Google Scholar
  36. Omidvarborna H, Kumar A, Kim D (2015a) S. (2015a) Variation of diesel soot characteristics by different types and blends of biodiesel in a laboratory combustion chamber. Sci Total Environ. 544:450–459.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.11.076 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Omidvarborna H, Kumar A, Kim DS, Venkata PKP, Bollineni VSP (2015b) Characterization and exhaust emission analyses of biodiesel in different temperature and pressure: laboratory study. J Hazard Tox RadWaste 19:04014030.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HZ.2153-5515.0000237 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Popovicheva OB, Kireeva ED, Shonija NK, Vojtisek-Lom M, Schwarz J (2015) FTIR analysis of surface functionalities on particulate matter produced by off-road diesel engines operating on diesel and biofuel. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(6):4534–4544.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3688-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Popovicheva OB, Irimiea C, Carpentier Y, Ortega IK, Kireeva ED, Shonija NK, Focsa C (2017) Chemical composition of diesel/biodiesel particulate exhaust by FTIR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry: Impact of fuel and driving cycle. Aerosol Air Qual Res. 17(7):1717–1734.  https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2017.04.0127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Salamanca M, Mondragón F, Agudelo JR, Santamaría A (2012a) Influence of palm oil biodiesel on the chemical and morphological characteristics of particulate matter emitted by a diesel engine. Atmos Environ 62:220–227.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.08.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Salamanca M, Mondragón F, Agudelo JR, Benjumea P, Santamaría A (2012b) Variations in the chemical composition and morphology of soot induced by the unsaturation degree of biodiesel and a biodiesel blend. Combust Flame. 159:1100–1108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2011.10.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shah AN, Yun-shan G, Shah FH, Mughal HU, Naveed A (2014) Effect of biodiesel on particulate numbers and composition emitted from turbocharged diesel engine. Int J Environ Sci Technol. 11(2):385–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Silverstein RM, Webster FX, Kiemle DJ, Bryce DL (2014) Spectrometric identification of organic compounds. 531, 7th Edition ,John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  44. Soares IP, Rezende TF, Silva RC, Castro EVR, Fortes IC (2008) Multivariate calibration by variable selection for blends of raw soybean oil/biodiesel from different sources using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra data. Energy & Fuel. 2008; 22(3): 2079‒83.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ef700531n CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Song J, Alam M, Boehman AL, Kim U (2006) Examination of the oxidation behavior of biodiesel soot. Combust Flame 146:589–604.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2006.06.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Soylu S (2014) Examination of PN emissions and size distributions of a hybrid city bus under real world urban driving conditions. Int J Auto Tech 15(3):369-376.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12239-014-0039-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Taşdemir Y, Erbaşlar T (2007) The association of some air pollutants with the meteorological parameters in an urban atmosphere. Uludağ Univ J Faculty Eng 12(2)Google Scholar
  48. Tiwari A, Rajesh VM, Yadav S (2018) Biodiesel production in micro-reactors: a review. Energy for Sustainable Development 43:143–161.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2018.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ulusoy Y (2016) Investigation of performance and emissions effects of waste vegetable oil methyl ester in a diesel engine. Uludağ University Journal of the Faculty of Engineering. 21(2):299–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ulusoy Y, Tekin Y, Cetinkaya M, Karaosmanoglu F (2004) The engine tests of biodiesel from used frying oil. Energy Sources. 26(10):927–932.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00908310490473219 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ulusoy Y, Arslan R, Tekin Y, Sürmen A, Bolat A, Şahin R (2018) Investigation of performance and emission characteristics of waste cooking oil as biodiesel in a diesel engine. Petroleum Science 15:396–404.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12182-018-0225-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vander Wal RL, Bryg VM, Hays MD (2010) Fingerprinting soot (towards source identification): Physical structure and chemical composition. J Aero Sci. 41:108–117.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2009.08.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vojtisek-Lom M, Czerwinski J, Leníček J, Sekyra M, Topinka J (2012) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil. Atmos Environ. 60:253–261.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.06.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Xue J, Grift TE, Hansen AC (2011) Effect of biodiesel on engine performances and emissions. Renew Sust Energ Rev. 15(2):1098–1116.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.11.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yaakob Z, Narayanan BN, Padikkaparambil S (2014) A review on the oxidation stability of biodiesel. Renew Sust Energ Rev. 35:136–153.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.03.055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vocational School of Technical SciencesUludag UniversityBursaTurkey

Personalised recommendations