Spermidine application reduces fluoride uptake and ameliorates physiological injuries in a susceptible rice cultivar by activating diverse regulators of the defense machinery

  • Aditya Banerjee
  • Ankur Singh
  • Aryadeep RoychoudhuryEmail author
Research Article


The manuscript illustrates the ameliorative effects of exogenously applied higher polyamine (PA), spermidine (Spd) in the susceptible indica rice cultivar IR-64 subjected to prolonged fluoride stress. The Spd treatment drastically reduced fluoride bioaccumulation by restricting entry of the anions through chloride channels and enabled better maintenance of the proton gradient via accumulation of P-H+/ATPase, thereby improving the root and shoot lengths, fresh and dry weights, RWC, chlorophyll content and activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PyrDH), α-amylase, and nitrate reductase (NR) in the Spd-treated, stressed plants. Expression of RuBisCo, PyrDH, α-amylase, and NR was stimulated. Spd supplementation reduced the molecular damage indices like malondialdehyde, lipoxygenase, protease activity, electrolyte leakage, protein carbonylation, H2O2, and methylglyoxal (detoxified by glyoxalase II). Mitigation of oxidative damage was facilitated by the accumulation and utilization of proline, glycine-betaine, total amino acids, higher PAs, anthocyanin, flavonoids, β-carotene, xanthophyll, and phenolics as verified from the expression of genes like P5CS, BADH1, SAMDC, SPDS, SPMS, DAO, PAO, and PAL. Spd treatment activated the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in the stressed seedlings. Expression and activities of enzymatic antioxidants showed that GPOX, APX, GPX, and GST were the chief ROS scavengers. Exogenous Spd promoted ABA accumulation by upregulating NCED3 and suppressing ABA8ox1 expression. ABA-dependent osmotic stress-responsive genes like Osem, WRKY71, and TRAB1 as well as ABA-independent transcription factor encoding gene DREB2A were induced by Spd. Thus, Spd treatment ameliorated fluoride-mediated injuries in IR-64 by restricting fluoride uptake, refining the defense machinery and activating the ABA-dependent as well as ABA-independent stress-responsive genes.


Fluoride stress Exogenous spermidine Rice physiology Osmolytes Antioxidants Abscisic acid Gene expression 



Financial assistance from Science and Engineering Research Board, Government of India through the grant (EMR/2016/004799) and Department of Higher Education, Science and Technology and Biotechnology, Government of West Bengal, through the grant (264(Sanc.)/ST/P/S&T/1G-80/2017) to Dr. Aryadeep Roychoudhury is gratefully acknowledged. The authors sincerely acknowledge Dr. Rupasri Ain, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata, for kindly allowing to access the real-time PCR facility. The efforts of Ms. Trishita Basak during preparation of the reactions for real-time PCR and relevant suggestions of Ms. Rumela Bose are also acknowledged. The authors thank Dr. Marc Boutry, Unité de Biochimie Physiologique, Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium, for providing the anti-P-H+/ATPase primary antibody as a kind gift. Aditya Banerjee is thankful to University Grants Commission, Government of India, for providing Junior Research Fellowship in course of this work.

Author contribution

ARC designed the experimental plan and supervised the overall work. AB performed the experiments and generated data. AS assisted AB in certain biochemical assays. AB and ARC drafted the manuscript. ARC provided critical comments and incorporated necessary modifications within the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_6711_MOESM1_ESM.docx (243 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 12 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aditya Banerjee
    • 1
  • Ankur Singh
    • 1
  • Aryadeep Roychoudhury
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Post Graduate Department of BiotechnologySt. Xavier’s College (Autonomous)KolkataIndia

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