Improvising the efficiency of single-sloped solar still using thermally conductive nano-ferric oxide

  • Gurukarthik Babu BalachandranEmail author
  • Prince Winston David
  • Rajesh Kannan Mariappan
  • Abd Elnaby Kabeel
  • Muthu Manokar Athikesavan
  • Ravishankar Sathyamurthy
Renewable Energy and Water Sustainability


The world is facing a severe shortage of freshwater, and so we are in urge to fetch new technologies to resolve water scarcity. To desalinate saline water, the single-sloped solar still (SSSS) has proven to be a viable option with much affordability. This research work concentrates on the usage of nanomaterial on the absorbent layer to improve the thermal conductivity of the basin area and thus the distillate produced per hour. The micro-coated and nano-Fe2O3 particles were employed and analyzed. The experiment proved that the implementation of this idea had a better productivity rate. The nanoparticles and microparticles were added at weight proportions of 10%. The experiment was conducted on two consecutive days. On the first day, the saline water was maintained at 0.5 cm depth, while on the next day, the saline water level was maintained at 1 cm. The cumulative yield for micro absorbent layer solar still (MALSS) was 3.23 kg/m2 and nanoabsorbent layer solar still (NALSS) was 4.39 kg/m2.


Single-sloped solar still Nano Ferric oxide Desalination Thermal conductive coating Absorbent layer 



Single-sloped solar still


Conventional solar still


Micro absorbent layer solar still


Nanoabsorbent layer solar still


Total dissolved solids


Revolutions per minute



Ambient temperature (°C)


Irradiance (W/m2)


Wind speed (m/s)


Basin water temperature (°C)


Glass cover temperature (°C)


Hourly productivity from a solar still (kg/m2 h)


Latent heat of vaporization (kJ/kg K)


Thermal efficiency (%)


Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

Is (t)

Solar intensity (W/m2)






Area (m2)



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gurukarthik Babu Balachandran
    • 1
    Email author
  • Prince Winston David
    • 1
  • Rajesh Kannan Mariappan
    • 1
  • Abd Elnaby Kabeel
    • 2
  • Muthu Manokar Athikesavan
    • 3
  • Ravishankar Sathyamurthy
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Electronics EngineeringKamaraj College of Engineering and TechnologyMaduraiIndia
  2. 2.Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringTanta UniversityTantaEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringB.S. Abdur Rahman Crescent Institute of Science and TechnologyChennaiIndia
  4. 4.Department of Automobile EngineeringHindustan Institute of Technology and ScienceChennaiIndia

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