Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in urban soil around non-nuclear industries (Northern Al Jubail), Saudi Arabia: assessment of health risk
- 23 Downloads
The residential areas are located around one of the oldest and largest non-nuclear industrial cities in Saudi Arabia, Arabian Gulf. Therefore, it is important to study the radioactivity levels in the urban soil in order to estimate the potential risk of radiation in environment and for public. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs in urban soil around non-nuclear industries were measured using gamma ray spectrometric technique. The mean values of activity concentrations were found to be 7.64 ± 0.4, 3.76 ± 0.2, 174 ± 3.7, and 0.391 ± 0.03 (Bq/kg) for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs, respectively. Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), gamma absorbed dose rate in air (D), and annual effective dose equivalent (E) for outdoor were calculated. The mean values of these radiological parameters were found to be less than the allowed limits in soil. The obtained results were compared with other studies from Arabian Gulf and other regions of the world. Consequently, the direct gamma radiation exposure from the urban soil in the study area was found to be safe for public. Additionally, the present study is the first in this area which could be used as a baseline for radioactivity levels in soil nearby industrial areas of the Arabian Gulf region.
KeywordsActivity concentration Urban soil Radiological parameters Non-nuclear industries Arabian Gulf
The author thanks the students from Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University and the research team from Basic and Applied Scientific Research Center for assistance in sampling. Great thanks are extended to Mrs. Ameena Alahmari from Laboratory of Radiation, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, for helping in gamma-ray spectrometry analysis.
The study is financially supported by Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University.
- Al-Ali AM, Solodov AA, Goddard B, Beeley PA (2017) Measurements of NORM in urban environmental soil samples in the United Arab Emirates International Conference on Engineering Geophysics, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, 9-12 October 2017, pp 516–519Google Scholar
- Al-Sulaiti H, Regan PH, Bradley DA, Malain D, Santawamaitre T, Habib A, Matthews M, Bukhari S, Al-Dosari M (2010) A preliminary report on the determination of natural radioactivity levels of the State of Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A 619:427–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Al-Sulaiti H, Al Mugren KS, Bradley DA, Regan PH, Santawamaitre T, Malain D, Habib A, Nasir T, Alkhomashi N, Al-Dahan N, Al-Dosari M, Bukhari S (2017) An assessment of the natural radioactivity distribution and radiation hazard in soil samples from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Radiat Phys Chem 140:132–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- EC (1999) Radiological protection principles concerning the natural radioactivity of building materials. European Commission, Radiation Protection 112, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
- Hamdy A, Diab HM, El-Fiki SA, Nouh SA (2007) Natural radioactivity in the cultivated land around the fertilizer factory. The second All African IRPA Regional Radiation Protection Congress, April. Ismailia Egypt, pp 22–26Google Scholar
- Hamzah Z, Abdul Rahman SA, Saat A (2011) Measurement of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in soil in district of kuala krai using gamma spectrometry. Malaysian J Anal Sci 15:159–166Google Scholar
- ICRP (1991) 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 60, Ann ICRP 21(1–3)Google Scholar
- Rahman SU, Matiullah MF, Rafique M, Anwar J, Ziafat M, Jabbar A (2011) Measurement of naturally occurring/fallout radioactive elements and assessment of annual effective dose in soil samples collected from four districts of the Punjab Province, Pakistan. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 287:647–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ravisankar R, Chandramohan J, Chandrasekaran A, Jebakumar JPP, Vijayalakshmi I, Vijayagopal P, Venkatraman B (2015) Assessments of radioactivity concentration of natural radionuclides and radiological hazard indices in sediment samples from the East coast of Tamilnadu, India with statistical approach. Mar Pollut Bull 97:419–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rood AS (1998) In: 29th Midyear Topical Meeting of the Health Physics Society, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA, January 7-10, p 10Google Scholar
- UNSCEAR (2000) Sources effects and risks of ionizing radiation. In: United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of atomic radiation, Report to the general assembly, with annexes. United Nation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- UNSCEAR (2008) Exposures of the public and workers from various sources of Radiation. In: United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of atomic radiation, Report to the general assembly, Annex B. United Nation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- WHO (2016) Ionizing radiation, health effects and protective measures. World Health Organization, Geneva http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ionizing-radiation-health-effects-and-protective-measures Google Scholar