Advertisement

Magnetic palm kernel biochar potential route for phenol removal from wastewater

  • Muhammad Nazmi Hairuddin
  • Nabisab Mujawar MubarakEmail author
  • Mohammad KhalidEmail author
  • Ezzat Chan AbdullahEmail author
  • Rashmi Walvekar
  • Rama Rao Karri
Research Article
  • 101 Downloads

Abstract

The pollution of water resources due to the disposal of industrial wastes that have organic material like phenol is causing worldwide concern because of their toxicity towards aquatic life, human beings and the environment. Phenol causes nervous system damage, renal kidney disease, mental retardation, cancer and anaemia. In this study, magnetic palm kernel biochar is used for removal of phenol from wastewater. The effect of parameters such as pH, agitation speed, contact time and magnetic biochar dosage are validated using design of experiments. The statistical analysis reveals that the optimum conditions for the highest removal (93.39%) of phenol are obtained at pH of 8, magnetic biochar dosage of 0.6 g, agitation speed at 180 rpm and time of 60 min with the initial concentration of 10 mg/L. The maximum adsorption capacities of phenol were found to be 10.84 mg/g and Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models match the experimental data very well and adsorption kinetic obeys a pseudo-second order. Hence, magnetic palm kernel can be a potential candidate for phenol removal from wastewater.

Keywords

Palm kernel Magnetic biochar Wastewater Isotherm Adsorption Phenol 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from Curtin University Malaysia and Sunway University.

References

  1. Abdel-Ghani N, Fouad G, Helal FS (2014) Individual and competitive adsorption of phenol and nickel onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes. J Adv Res 6:405–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdelkreem M (2013) Adsorption of phenol from industrial wastewater using olive mill waste. APCBEE Proc 5:349–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abdelwahab O, Amin NK (2013) Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions by Luffa cylindrica fibers: kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamic studies. Egypt J Aquat Res 39:215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al Zarooni M, Elshorbagy W (2006) Characterization and assessment of Al Ruwais refinery wastewater. J Hazard Mater 136:398–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alam Khan M, Ahmad A (2016) Kinetics and thermodynamic studies of phenol adsorption on nanocomposite. Desalination Water Treat 57:11255–11265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alam M, Ameem ES, Muyibi S, Kabbashi N (2009a) The factors affecting the performance of activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunches for adsorption of phenol. 155 191–198 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Alam MZ, Ameem ES, Muyibi SA, Kabbashi NA (2009b) The factors affecting the performance of activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunches for adsorption of phenol. Chem Eng J 155:191–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Amoatey P, Bani PR (2011) Wastewater management. Waste Water - Evaluation and Management:379–398Google Scholar
  9. Anyika C, Asri NAM, Majid ZA, Yahya A, Jaafar J (2017) Synthesis and characterization of magnetic activated carbon developed from palm kernel shells. Nanotechnol Environ Eng 2:16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Archana V, Meera S, Begum KM, Anantharaman N (2016) Studies on removal of phenol using ionic liquid immobilized polymeric micro-capsules. Arab J Chem 9:371–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Asmaly H, Khan I, Abussaud B, Saleh T, Laoui T, Gupta V, A A (2015) Adsorption of phenol on aluminum oxide impregnated fly ash. 57 6801–6808 ppGoogle Scholar
  12. Ayotte P, Smith RS, Stevenson KP, Dohnlek Z, Kimmel GA, Kay BD (2001) Effect of porosity on the adsorption, desorption, trapping, and release of volatile gases by amorphous solid water. J Geophys Res 106:33387–33392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baig SA, Lou Z, Hayat MT, Fu R, Liu Y, Xu X (2016) Characterization of magnetic biochar amended with silicon dioxide prepared at high temperature calcination. 34:597Google Scholar
  14. Bohdziewicz J, Kamińska G, Tytła M (2012) The removal of phenols from wastewater through sorption on activated carbon. 5:89–94Google Scholar
  15. Chakraborty S, De S, Dasgupta S, Basu J (2005): Adsorption study for the removal of a basic dye: experimental and modeling, 58, 1079–86 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Coniglio MS, Busto VD, González PS, Medina MI, Milrad S, Agostini E (2008) Application of Brassica napus hairy root cultures for phenol removal from aqueous solutions. Chemosphere 72:1035–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dahalan F (2014) Phenol and its toxicity, 2, 11–24 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Dakhil I (2013) Removal of phenol from industrial wastewater using sawdust, 3, 25–31 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Devi P, Saroha AK (2014) Synthesis of the magnetic biochar composites for use as an adsorbent for the removal of pentachlorophenol from the effluent. Bioresour Technol 169:525–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dilekoglu M (2016) Use of genetic algorithm optimization technique in the adsorption of phenol on banana and grapefruit peels, 38Google Scholar
  21. Elgarahy AM, Elwakeel KZ, Elshoubaky GA, Mohammad SH (2019) Microwave-accelerated sorption of cationic dyes onto green marine algal biomass. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26:22704–22722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Elwakeel KZ, El-Sayed GO, Abo El-Nassr SM (2015) Removal of ferrous and manganous from water by activated carbon obtained from sugarcane bagasse. Desalin Water Treat 55:471–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Elwakeel KZ, Aly MH, El-Howety MA, El-Fadaly E, Al-Said A (2018) Synthesis of chitosan@activated carbon beads with abundant amino groups for capture of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solutions. J Polym Environ 26:3590–3602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Farhod APDK (2010) Study the adsorption phenomena of phenol from industrial wastewater using commercial powdered activated carbon by using isotherm models, 28, 1186–1195 ppGoogle Scholar
  25. Gami AA, Shukor MY, Khalil KA, Dahalan FA, Khalid A, Ahmad SA (2014) Phenol and its toxicity: a short review. 1-27Google Scholar
  26. Gao Y, Pramanik A, Begum S, Sweet C, Jones S, Alamgir A, Ray PC (2017) Multifunctional biochar for highly efficient capture, identification, and removal of toxic metals and superbugs from water samples. ACS Omega 2:7730–7738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Garba A, Nasri NS, Basri H, Ismail R, Abdul Majid Z, Hamza UD, Mohammed J (2016) Adsorptive removal of phenol from aqueous solution on a modified palm shell-based carbon: fixed-bed adsorption studies. Desalin Water Treat 57:29488–29499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gholizadeh A, Kermani M, Gholami M, Farzadkia M, Yaghmaeian K (2013) Removal efficiency, adsorption kinetics and isotherms of phenolic compounds from aqueous solution using rice bran ash, 25, 3871–3878 ppGoogle Scholar
  29. Girish CR, Ramachandra Murty V (2014) Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution using Lantana camara, forest waste: kinetics, isotherm, and thermodynamic studies. International Scholarly Research Notices 2014:201626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gundogdu A, Duran C, Senturk HB, Soylak M, Ozdes D, Serencam H, Imamoglu M (2012) Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution on a low-cost activated carbon produced from tea industry waste: equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic study. J Chem Eng Data 57:2733–2743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gupta AK, Ahmad M (2012) Assessment of cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of refinery waste effluent using plant, animal and bacterial systems. J Hazard Mater 201-202:92–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hsieh F-M, Huang C, Lin T-F, Chen Y-M, Lin J-C (2008) Study of sodium tripolyphosphate-crosslinked chitosan beads entrapped with Pseudomonas putida for phenol degradation. Process Biochem 43:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Inyinbor AA, Adekola FA, Olatunji GA (2016) Kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic modeling of liquid phase adsorption of rhodamine B dye onto Raphia hookerie fruit epicarp. Water Resources and Industry 15:14–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jiboury DKFCA (2013) Adsorption of phenol from industrial wastewater using commercial powdered activated carbon. ICOEST Cappadocia 2013:114–124Google Scholar
  35. Kargari A, Abbassian K (2015) Study of phenol removal from aqueous solutions by a double emulsion (W/O/W) system stabilized with polymer, 50, 150211124006007 ppGoogle Scholar
  36. Karri RR, Sahu JN (2018) Modeling and optimization by particle swarm embedded neural network for adsorption of zinc (II) by palm kernel shell based activated carbon from aqueous environment. J Environ Manag 206:178–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Karri RR, Jayakumar NS, Sahu JN (2017a) Modelling of fluidised-bed reactor by differential evolution optimization for phenol removal using coconut shells based activated carbon. J Mol Liq 231:249–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Karri RR, Sahu JN, Jayakumar NS (2017b) Optimal isotherm parameters for phenol adsorption from aqueous solutions onto coconut shell based activated carbon: error analysis of linear and non-linear methods. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 80:472–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Karri RR, Tanzifi M, Tavakkoli Yaraki M, Sahu JN (2018) Optimization and modeling of methyl orange adsorption onto polyaniline nano-adsorbent through response surface methodology and differential evolution embedded neural network. J Envi Manage 223:517–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lee W-H, Tseng T-Y, Hennings D (2001) Effects of ceramic processing parameters on the microstructure and dielectric properties of (Ba1-xCax)(Ti0.99-y′ ZryMn0.01)O3 sintered in a reducing atmosphere. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 12:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Li H, Mahyoub SAA, Liao W, Xia S, Zhao H, Guo M, Ma P (2017) Effect of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics and aromatic contaminants adsorption behavior of magnetic biochar derived from pyrolysis oil distillation residue. Bioresour Technol 223:20–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lingamdinne LP, Koduru JR, Chang YY, Karri RR (2018) Process optimization and adsorption modeling of Pb(II) on nickel ferrite-reduced graphene oxide nano-composite. J Mol Liq 250:202–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ma H, Li J-B, Liu W-W, Miao M, Cheng B-J, Zhu S-W (2015) Novel synthesis of a versatile magnetic adsorbent derived from corncob for dye removal. Bioresour Technol 190:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mihoc G, Ianoş R, Păcurariu C (2014) Adsorption of phenol and p-chlorophenol from aqueous solutions by magnetic nanopowder, 69, 385–91 ppGoogle Scholar
  45. Milonjić SK (2007) A consideration of the correct calculation of thermodynamic parameters of adsorption. J Serb Chem Soc 72:1363–1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Molva M (2004) Removal of phenol from industrial wastewaters using lignitic coals. 1-90Google Scholar
  47. Mu’azu N, Jarrah N, Zubair M, Alagha O (2017) Removal of phenolic compounds from water using sewage sludge-based activated carbon adsorption: a review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14:1094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mubarak NM, Sahu JN, Abdullah EC, Jayakumar NS (2016) Palm oil empty fruit bunch based magnetic biochar composite comparison for synthesis by microwave-assisted and conventional heating. J Anal Appl Pyrol 120:521-528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Owa FD (2013): Water pollution: sources, effects, control and management, 8Google Scholar
  50. Panagos P, Van Liedekerke M, Yigini Y, Montanarella L (2013) Contaminated sites in Europe: review of the current situation based on data collected through a European network, 2013, 158764 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pradeep NV, Anupama S, Navya K, Shalini HN, Idris M, Hampannavar US (2015) Biological removal of phenol from wastewaters: a mini review. Appl Water Sci 5:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Qiu Y, Zheng Z, Zhou Z, Daniel Sheng G (2009) Effectiveness and mechanisms of dye adsorption on a straw-based biochar, 100, 5348–51 ppGoogle Scholar
  53. Rincón-Silva NG, Moreno-Piraján JC, Giraldo LG (2015) Thermodynamic study of adsorption of phenol, 4-chlorophenol, and 4-nitrophenol on activated carbon obtained from eucalyptus seed. J Chem 2015:12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rincón-Silva NG, Moreno-Piraján JC, Giraldo L (2016) Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics study of phenols adsorption onto activated carbon obtained from lignocellulosic material (Eucalyptus Globulus labill seed). Adsorption 22:33–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ruthiraan M, Abdullah EC, Mubarak NM, Noraini MN (2017) A promosing route of magnetic based materials for removal of Cadmium and methylene blue from waste water. J Environ Chem Eng 5:1447–1455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ruthiraan M, Mubarak NM, Abdullah EC, Mohammad Khalid, Nizamuddin S, Walvekar R, Karri RR (2019) An overview of magnetic material: preparation and adsorption removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Magnetic Nanostructures :131-159.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16439-3_8 Google Scholar
  57. Said M, Ahmad A, Mohammad A (2013) Removal of phenol during ultrafiltration of palm oil mill effluent (POME): effect of pH, ionic strength, pressure and temperature, 5, 190–196 ppGoogle Scholar
  58. Shahamat YD, Farzadkia M, Nasseri S, Mahvi AH, Gholami M, Esrafili A (2014) Magnetic heterogeneous catalytic ozonation: a new removal method for phenol in industrial wastewater. J Environ Health Sci Eng 12:50–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shin W-s (2017) Adsorption characteristics of phenol and heavy metals on biochar from Hizikia fusiformis. Environ Earth Sci 76:782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sihem A, LehocineM B, A M (2012) Batch adsorption of phenol from industrial waste water using cereal by-products as a new adsrbent. Energy Procedia 18:1135–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tao K, Dou H, Sun K (2008) Interfacial coprecipitation to prepare magnetite nanoparticles: concentration and temperature dependence. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 320:115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Taylor H (2003) Drinking water microbiology, handbook of water and wastewater microbiology. Academic Press, United Kingdom, pp 611–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Thines KR, Abdullah EC, Mubarak NM, Ruthiraan M (2017a) In-situ polymerization of magnetic biochar–polypyrrole composite: a novel application in supercapacitor. Biomass Bioenergy 98:95–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Thines KR, Abdullah EC, Mubarak NM, Ruthiraan M (2017b) Synthesis of magnetic biochar from agricultural waste biomass to enhancing route for waste water and polymer application: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 67:257–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tran HN, You S-J, Hosseini-Bandegharaei A, Chao H-P (2017) Mistakes and inconsistencies regarding adsorption of contaminants from aqueous solutions: a critical review. Water Res 120:88–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tziotzios G, Teliou M, Kaltsouni V, Lyberatos G, Vayenas DV (2005) Biological phenol removal using suspended growth and packed bed reactors. Biochem Eng J 26:65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wu M, Ma J, Cai Z, Tian G, Yang S, Wang Y, Xe L (2015) Rational synthesis of zerovalent iron/bamboo charcoal composites with high saturation magnetization. RSC Adv 5:88703–88709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Xin O, Yitong H, Xi C, Chen J (2016) Magnetic biochar combining adsorption and separation recycle for removal of chromium in aqueous solution, 75, wst2016610 ppGoogle Scholar
  69. Yap MW, Mubarak NM, Sahu JN, Abdullah EC (2017) Microwave induced synthesis of magnetic biochar from agricultural biomass for removal of lead and cadmium from. J Ind Eng Chem 45:287-295Google Scholar
  70. Zhang M, Gao B, Varnoosfaderani S, Hebard A, Yao Y, Inyang M (2013) Preparation and characterization of a novel magnetic biochar for arsenic removal. Bioresour Technol 130:457–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zhang X, Rajagopalan K, Lei H, Ruan R, Sharma BK (2017) An overview of a novel concept in biomass pyrolysis: microwave irradiation. Sustain Energy Fuels 1:1664–1699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zhou X, Zhou J, Liu Y, Wang Y, Ren J, Ling B (2018) Preparation of magnetic biochar derived from cyclosorus interruptus for the removal of phenolic compounds: characterization and mechanism. Sep Sci Technol 53:1307–1318CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and ScienceCurtin UniversityMiriMalaysia
  2. 2.Graphene & Advanced 2D Materials Research Group (GAMRG), School of Science and TechnologySunway UniversitySubang JayaMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Chemical Process Engineering, Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology (MJIIT)Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)Kuala LumpurMalaysia
  4. 4.Sustainable Energy and Green Technology Research Group (SEGT), School of EngineeringTaylor’s UniversitySubang JayaMalaysia
  5. 5.Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi BruneiMukim Gadong ABrunei Darussalam

Personalised recommendations