Magnetic palm kernel biochar potential route for phenol removal from wastewater

  • Muhammad Nazmi Hairuddin
  • Nabisab Mujawar MubarakEmail author
  • Mohammad KhalidEmail author
  • Ezzat Chan AbdullahEmail author
  • Rashmi Walvekar
  • Rama Rao Karri
Research Article


The pollution of water resources due to the disposal of industrial wastes that have organic material like phenol is causing worldwide concern because of their toxicity towards aquatic life, human beings and the environment. Phenol causes nervous system damage, renal kidney disease, mental retardation, cancer and anaemia. In this study, magnetic palm kernel biochar is used for removal of phenol from wastewater. The effect of parameters such as pH, agitation speed, contact time and magnetic biochar dosage are validated using design of experiments. The statistical analysis reveals that the optimum conditions for the highest removal (93.39%) of phenol are obtained at pH of 8, magnetic biochar dosage of 0.6 g, agitation speed at 180 rpm and time of 60 min with the initial concentration of 10 mg/L. The maximum adsorption capacities of phenol were found to be 10.84 mg/g and Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models match the experimental data very well and adsorption kinetic obeys a pseudo-second order. Hence, magnetic palm kernel can be a potential candidate for phenol removal from wastewater.


Palm kernel Magnetic biochar Wastewater Isotherm Adsorption Phenol 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from Curtin University Malaysia and Sunway University.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and ScienceCurtin UniversityMiriMalaysia
  2. 2.Graphene & Advanced 2D Materials Research Group (GAMRG), School of Science and TechnologySunway UniversitySubang JayaMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Chemical Process Engineering, Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology (MJIIT)Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)Kuala LumpurMalaysia
  4. 4.Sustainable Energy and Green Technology Research Group (SEGT), School of EngineeringTaylor’s UniversitySubang JayaMalaysia
  5. 5.Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi BruneiMukim Gadong ABrunei Darussalam

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