Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 31, pp 32476–32487 | Cite as

The impact of polar fraction of the fine particulate matter on redox responses in different rat tissues

  • Joaquim de Paula Ribeiro
  • Ana Cristina Kalb
  • Sabrina de Bastos Maya
  • Adriana GiodaEmail author
  • Pablo Elias Martinez
  • José Maria Monserrat
  • Braulio D. Jiménez-Vélez
  • Carolina Rosa Gioda
Research Article


Particulate matter (PM) contains different chemical substances that have been associated with health effects and an increased risk of mortality due to their toxicity. In this study, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected in a region with rural characteristics (Seropédica (Se)) and another with some industries (Duque de Caxias (DC)) (Brazil, RJ). Rats were exposed to PM2.5 extracts daily for 25 days at different dilutions: 10×, 5×, and a concentrated solution (CS). Biochemical analyses were investigated for total antioxidant capacity (ACAP), lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, activity of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST). The liver showed a significant increase in GCL (DC-5×, DC-CS and Se-CS) and GST activities (DC-CS and Se-CS) in both regions when compared to the control group. In the renal cortex, GCL activity decreased in most of the tested groups while GST activity increased only in the 5× groups of both regions (DC and Se). In the renal medulla, GCL activity decreased for Se-10× and DC-CS but increased for Se-5×, and GST activity increased in the Se-10×, DC-5×, and DC-CS groups. Lung GCL increased in all groups for both regions. Moreover, this organ also showed an increase in GST activity when higher metal concentrations were present (5× and CS). TBARS levels were increased for all tissues in most tested concentrations. These data indicate that soluble compounds (e.g., metals) from PM2.5 sampled in areas with different pollution indexes can change the redox status and cause damage to different tissues.


Glutathione Glutamate cysteine ligase Glutathione S-transferase Lipoperoxidation Particulate matter 



The authors thank Brazilian Agencies CNPq, CAPES, and FAPERJ for financial support and INEA-RJ for providing PM2.5 samples. J.M. Monserrat is a productivity research from CNPq (PQ 308539/2016-8). A. Gioda thanks CNPq for the Bolsa de Produtividade and FAPERJ for the Auxilio Cientista do Nosso Estado.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joaquim de Paula Ribeiro
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ana Cristina Kalb
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sabrina de Bastos Maya
    • 1
  • Adriana Gioda
    • 3
    Email author
  • Pablo Elias Martinez
    • 1
    • 2
  • José Maria Monserrat
    • 1
    • 2
  • Braulio D. Jiménez-Vélez
    • 4
  • Carolina Rosa Gioda
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Instituto de Ciências BiológicasUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande, FURGRio GrandeBrazil
  2. 2.Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências FisiológicasInstituto de Ciências Biológicas, FURGRio GrandeBrazil
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryPontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Biochemistry, Medical Sciences CampusUniversity of Puerto RicoSan JuanPuerto Rico

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