Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 32, pp 33399–33415 | Cite as

Improving the attractiveness and accessibility of campus green space for developing a sustainable university environment

  • Xinqin LiEmail author
  • Guoping Ni
  • Bart Dewancker
Research Article
  • 196 Downloads

Abstract

A growing body of research has investigated the vital effects of urban greening. However, the green space on campus, also recognized as an important element of urban greening and providing many benefits to college students, has gained very limited attention. In developing China, after nearly 20 years of campus construction climax, the speed of expansion has dropped significantly and the focus of a sustainable and optimized green campus has emerged. Improving the accessibility, availability, and attractiveness is a control determining if the green spaces can realize their values. Therefore, this study, taking a case, aims to explore and better understand students’ usage conditions, perceptions, and demands about campus green spaces. On Yijin campus in Hangzhou, China, through the questionnaire among 590 students, and accessibility analysis based on Space syntax theory, we have revealed that the negative usage condition of green spaces: most students rarely or occasionally visit the green space, and the visit time is concentrated in the afternoon and after class but rarely in the morning. Besides, students’ gender and growth surroundings have little influence on the perception of campus green space, but the plant configuration, seasonal color richness, and facilities required at different spaces will affect. In addition, the ranking of accessibility analyzed by Space syntax theory is similar to campus convenience considered by students. In the conclusions, suggestions are made about how to fulfill students’ requirements and improve the attractiveness and accessibility of campus green spaces so that they may inform to the growth of emerging colleges and universities in other cities and countries undergoing campus construction climax.

Keywords

Campus green space Attractiveness Accessibility Space syntax Perception Usage condition Green campus Satisfaction Global integration 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors appreciate the assistance of managers and workers from Zhejiang A&F University, as well as the attendance of students of Yijin campus during the answering of the questionnaire.

References

  1. Akpinar A (2016) How is high school greenness related to students ’ restoration and health ? Urban For Urban Green 16:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2016.01.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alkamali N, Alhadhrami N, Alalouch C (2017) Muscat city expansion and accessibility to the historical core: space syntax analysis. Energy Procedia 115:480–486.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.05.044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amani-Beni M, Zhang B, di Xie G, Xu J (2018) Impact of urban park’s tree, grass and waterbody on microclimate in hot summer days: a case study of Olympic Park in Beijing, China. Urban For Urban Green 32:1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2018.03.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bahrini F, Bell S, Mokhtarzadeh S (2017) The relationship between the distribution and use patterns of parks and their spatial accessibility at the city level: a case study from Tehran, Iran. Urban For Urban Green 27:332–342.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2017.05.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baran PK, Tabrizian P, Zhai Y, Smith JW, Floyd MF (2018) An exploratory study of perceived safety in a neighborhood park using immersive virtual environments. Urban For Urban Green 35:72–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2018.08.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belmeziti A, Cherqui F, Kaufmann B (2018) Improving the multi-functionality of urban green spaces: relations between components of green spaces and urban services. Sustain Cities Soc 43:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2018.07.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Biernacka M, Kronenberg J (2018) Classification of institutional barriers affecting the availability, accessibility and attractiveness of urban green spaces. Urban For Urban Green 36:22–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2018.09.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bureau of Hangzhou Statistics(BHS) (2018) Statistical Communique of 2017 National Economic and Social Development of Hangzhou. http://www.hangzhou.gov.cn/art/2018/5/21/art_805865_18193579.html
  9. Carpenter M (2013) From “healthful exercise” to “nature on prescription”: the politics of urban green spaces and walking for health. Landsc Urban Plan 118:120–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2013.02.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Choi YJ, Oh M, Kang J, Lutzenhiser L (2017) Plans and living practices for the green campus of portland state university. Sustain 9:1–16.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su9020252 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dadvand P, Rivas I, Basagaña X, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Su J, de Castro Pascual M, Amato F, Jerret M, Querol X, Sunyer J, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ (2015) The association between greenness and traffic-related air pollution at schools. Sci Total Environ 523:59–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.03.103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. EEA EEA (2006) The impacts of urban sprawlGoogle Scholar
  13. Fan P, Xu L, Yue W, Chen J (2017) Accessibility of public urban green space in an urban periphery: the case of Shanghai. Landsc Urban Plan 165:177–192.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.11.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. He B, Zhu J (2018) Constructing community gardens? Residents’ attitude and behaviour towards edible landscapes in emerging urban communities of China. Urban For Urban Green 34:154–165.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2018.06.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Heynen NC (2003) The scalar production of injustice within the urban forest. Antipode 35:980–998.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2003.00367.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hillier B (1997) Space is the machine: a configurational theory of architectureGoogle Scholar
  17. Hillier B, Penn A, Hanson J, Grajewski T, Xu J (1993) Natural movement: or, configuration and attraction in urban pedestrian movement. Environ Plan B Plan Des 20:29–66.  https://doi.org/10.1068/b200029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Holt E, Lombard Q, Best N, Smiley-Smith S, Quinn J (2019) Active and passive use of green space, health, and well-being amongst University Students. Int J Environ Res Public Health 16:424.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030424 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jennings V, Bamkole O, Jennings V, Bamkole O (2019) The relationship between social cohesion and urban green space: an avenue for health promotion. Int J Environ Res Public Health 16:452.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030452 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jiang B, Claramunt C, Klarqvist B (2000) Integration of space syntax into GIS for modelling urban spaces. ITC J 2:161–171.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0303-2434(00)85010-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kaplan R, Kaplan S (1989) Countermeasures for the Behavior of college students’ over-staying in dormitories. CUP ArchiveGoogle Scholar
  22. Khalesian M, Pahlavani P, Delavar MR (2009) A GIS-based traffic control strategy planning at urban intersections. J Comput Sci 9:166–174Google Scholar
  23. Kim H-K, Sohn DW (2002) An analysis of the relationship between land use density of office buildings and urban street configuration. Cities 19:409–418.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-2751(02)00071-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Koprowska K, Łaszkiewicz E, Kronenberg J, Marcińczak S (2018) Subjective perception of noise exposure in relation to urban green space availability. Urban For Urban Green 31:93–102.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2018.01.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li HN, Chau CK, Tang SK (2010) Can surrounding greenery reduce noise annoyance at home? Sci Total Environ 408:4376–4384.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.06.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Li X, Ni G, Dewancker B (2018) Improving the attractiveness and accessibility of campus green space for developing a sustainable university environment. 1–20Google Scholar
  27. Li C, Gao X, He BJ, Wu J, Wu K (2019a) Coupling coordination relationships between urban-industrial land use efficiency and accessibility of highway networks: evidence from Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration, China. Sustain 11.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051446 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Li C, Gao X, Wu J, Wu K (2019b) Demand prediction and regulation zoning of urban-industrial land: evidence from Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration, China. Environ Monit Assess 191:412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liu Q, Zhang Y, Lin Y, You D, Zhang W, Huang Q, van den Bosch CCK, Lan S (2018) The relationship between self-rated naturalness of university green space and students’ restoration and health. Urban For Urban Green 34:259–268.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2018.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mahmoud AH, Omar RH (2015) Planting design for urban parks: Space syntax as a landscape design assessment tool. Front Archit Res 4:35–45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2014.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ministry of Education (2017) Ministry of Education. http://www.moe.edu.cn/srcsite/A03/moe_634/201706/t20170614_306900.html(accessed 170614)
  32. Ministry of Education (2018) List of national higher education institutions. http://www.moe.edu.cn/jyb_sjzl/sjzl_fztjgb/201807/t20180719_343508.html(accessed 180719)
  33. Nath TK, Zhe Han SS, Lechner AM (2018) Urban green space and well-being in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Urban For Urban Green 36:34–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2018.09.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. National Bureau of Statistics of China (2017) China statistical yearbook. In: Beijing China Stat. Press. http://data.stats.gov.cn/easyquery.htm?cn = C01
  35. Nieuwenhuijsen M, Gascon M, Martinez D, Ponjoan A, Blanch J, Garcia-Gil M, Ramos R, Foraster M, Mueller N, Espinosa A, Cirach M, Khreis H, Dadvand P, Basagaña X (2018) Air pollution, noise, blue space, and green space and premature mortality in Barcelona: a mega cohort. Int J Environ Res Public Health 15:2405.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112405 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rey Gozalo G, Barrigón Morillas JM, Montes González D, Atanasio Moraga P (2018) Relationships among satisfaction, noise perception, and use of urban green spaces. Sci Total Environ 624:438–450.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.148 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Roo M, Kuypers VHM, Lenzholzer S (2011) The green city guidelines : techniques for a healthy liveable city. The Green City, 319Google Scholar
  38. Srinurak N, Mishima N, Fuchikami T, Duangthima W (2016) Analysis of urban morphology and accessibility character to provide evacuation route in historic area. Procedia - Soc Behav Sci 216:460–469.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.12.061 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stessens P, Khan AZ, Huysmans M, Canters F (2017) Analysing urban green space accessibility and quality: a GIS-based model as spatial decision support for urban ecosystem services in Brussels. Ecosyst Serv 28:328–340.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.10.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tan H, Chen S, Shi Q, Wang L (2014) Development of green campus in China. J Clean Prod 64:646–653.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.10.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tang L (2016) Countermeasures for the behavior of college students’ over-staying in dormitories. Univ Logist Res 5Google Scholar
  42. Turner A (2004) Depthmap 4: A Researcher’s HandbookGoogle Scholar
  43. Vanaken G-J, Danckaerts M, Vanaken G-J, Danckaerts M (2018) Impact of green space exposure on children’s and adolescents’ mental health: a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 15:2668.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122668 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Washington-Ottombre C, Washington GL, Newman J (2018) Campus sustainability in the US: environmental management and social change since 1970. J Clean Prod 196:564–575.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.06.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wei F (2017) Greener urbanization? Changing accessibility to parks in China. Landsc Urban Plan 157:542–552.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.09.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wüstemann H, Kalisch D, Kolbe J (2017) Access to urban green space and environmental inequalities in Germany. Landsc Urban Plan 164:124–131.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2017.04.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Xiana H, Lipeng Z (2017) Simulation of pedestrian flow in traditional commercial streets based on space syntax. Procedia Eng 205:1344–1349.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.10.117 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Xu X, Sun S, Liu W, García EH, He L, Cai Q, Xu S, Wang J, Zhu J (2017) The cooling and energy saving effect of landscape design parameters of urban park in summer: a case of Beijing, China. Energy Build 149:91–100.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.05.052 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhai Y, Baran PK (2016) Do configurational attributes matter in context of urban parks? Park pathway configurational attributes and senior walking. Landsc Urban Plan 148:188–202.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.12.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhai Y, Korça Baran P, Wu C (2018) Can trail spatial attributes predict trail use level in urban forest park? An examination integrating GPS data and space syntax theory. Urban For Urban Green 29:171–182.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2017.10.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhao D-X, He B-J, Meng F-Q (2015) The green school project: a means of speeding up sustainable development? Geoforum 65:310–313.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2015.08.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zhou ZX, Li J (2015) The correlation analysis on the landscape pattern index and hydrological processes in the Yanhe watershed, China. J Hydrol 524:417–426.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.02.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zijian C, Zhi T, Jia G (2017) A preliminary study on the theory of campus planning in metropolitan universities in the rapid urbanization. Int Conf Smart City Syst Eng 2017:148–151.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSCSE.2017.44 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Žlender V, Ward Thompson C (2017) Accessibility and use of peri-urban green space for inner-city dwellers: a comparative study. Landsc Urban Plan 165:193–205.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.06.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Environmental EngineeringThe University of KitakyushuKitakyushuJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Architectural EngineeringYiwu Industrial and Commercial CollegeYiwuChina
  3. 3.Department of City PlanningCity Planning & Design Institute of Yiwu ChinaYiwuChina

Personalised recommendations