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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 31, pp 31667–31674 | Cite as

Physiological response of spinach to toxic heavy metal stress

  • Muhammad Zubair
  • Qudrat Ullah Khan
  • Nosheen Mirza
  • Rizwana Sarwar
  • Asghar Ali Khan
  • Mohammad Safdar Baloch
  • Shah FahadEmail author
  • Adnan Noor ShahEmail author
Research Article
  • 89 Downloads

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the concentration of two heavy metals, i.e., mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in soil and plant. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was used as a test vegetable in a pot experiment. Five spiked concentrations of both the metals along with sewage water were used as treatments. The analyses of the metals were determined in two cuttings. The results showed significant effect of treatments on the concentration of the two metals in soil and plant. The concentrations of As recorded were higher in 1st spinach cutting and reduced in the second harvest. However, comparing the two metal concentrations, it was found that As was absorbed greater as compared with Hg. Analyzing the plant growth parameter, it was found that metal stress has significantly influenced the plant growth. In sewage water pots, As was significantly higher than Hg. The transfer factor from soil to plant showed higher As in plants at lower concentration, but at higher As levels, the transfer rate declined, while Hg showed it was completely inverse. Positive correlation was found between soil applied metal concentration and plant uptake. It may be concluded from the above results that spinach is a good accumulator of heavy metals and has shown significant result of both As and Hg accumulation in plant. The concentration increased with the increasing concentration in soil.

Keywords

Arsenic Mercury Sewage water Spinach Uptake 

Notes

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Zubair
    • 1
  • Qudrat Ullah Khan
    • 1
  • Nosheen Mirza
    • 2
  • Rizwana Sarwar
    • 2
  • Asghar Ali Khan
    • 3
  • Mohammad Safdar Baloch
    • 3
  • Shah Fahad
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  • Adnan Noor Shah
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Soil and Environmental SciencesGomal UniversityDera Ismail KhanPakistan
  2. 2.Environmental SciencesCIITAbbotabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Agronomy, Faculty of AgricultureGomal UniversityDera Ismail KhanPakistan
  4. 4.Department of AgricultureUniversity of SwabiAmbarPakistan
  5. 5.College of Plant Sciences and TechnologyHuazhong Agriculture UniversityWuhanChina

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