Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 30, pp 30808–30825 | Cite as

Investigating the urbanization process and its impact on vegetation change and urban heat island in Wuhan, China

  • Xuan Gui
  • Lunche WangEmail author
  • Rui Yao
  • Deqing Yu
  • Chang’an Li
Research Article

Abstract

Rapid urbanization significantly changes vegetation coverage and heat distribution, which threatens the sustainable development and the quality of life. As the largest developing city in Central China, Wuhan was chosen as the experimental region. This study investigated the urbanization process of Wuhan from 1989 to 2917 based on Landsat data. Combined with MODIS EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) and LST (Land Surface Temperature) data, vegetation disturbance and surface urban heat island (SUHI) caused by urbanization were discussed for 2001–2017. Furthermore, correlation between ∆EVI (urban EVI minus rural EVI) and ∆LST (urban LST minus rural LST) was also conducted. The results were as follows: (1) Wuhan experienced a strong urbanization over the past 29 years, with an increasing urban expansion rate and the altered dominant urban expansion pattern (edge expansion and infilling). After the enhanced vegetation functions and urban increased structures, the urbanization finally caused the fragmented patches and irregular urban shapes. (2) Urbanization had a positive effect on LST but a negative effect on EVI. From 2001 to 2017, the highest increasing rate of ∆LST for the old urban area (OUA) and urbanized area (UA) was both observed in summer daytime (OUA, 0.106 °C/a; UA, 0.207 °C/a). The decreasing rate of ∆EVI reached the highest value in summer (OUA, 0.00697/a; UA, 0.00298/a). (3) There was a strong negative correlation (except spring and winter for OUA) between ∆EVI and ∆LST in daytime, which proved that the activity of vegetation in daytime could relieve LST to a certain extent. This study clarifies the dynamic urbanization process of Wuhan and discusses its impacts on vegetation change and SUHI. Efficiently investigating urbanization process and quantifying its impacts on urban environment are critical for regional ecological conservation.

Keywords

Urbanization Impervious surface EVI LST Wuhan 

Notes

Funding information

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41601044 and 41801021), the Special Fund for Basic Scientific Research of Central Colleges, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan (CUGL170401, and CUGCJ1704), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Grant XDA19020303.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Ahmad A, Quegan S (2012) Analysis of maximum likelihood classification on multispectral data. Appl Math Sci 6:6425–6436Google Scholar
  2. Akbari H, Cartalis C, Kolokotsa D, Muscio A, Pisello AL, Rossi F, Santamouris M, Synnefa A, Wong NH, Zinzi M (2016) Local climate change and urban heat island mitigation techniques–the state of the art. J Civ Eng Manag 22:1–16Google Scholar
  3. Armson D, Stringer P, Ennos A (2012) The effect of tree shade and grass on surface and globe temperatures in an urban area. Urban For Urban Green 11:245–255Google Scholar
  4. Arnfield AJ (2003) Two decades of urban climate research: a review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island. Int J Climatol 23:1–26Google Scholar
  5. Bai X, Chen J, Shi P (2012) Landscape urbanization and economic growth in China: positive feedbacks and sustainability dilemmas. Environ Sci Technol 46:132–139Google Scholar
  6. Bao T, Li X, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Tian S (2016) Assessing the distribution of urban green spaces and its anisotropic cooling distance on urban heat island pattern in Baotou, China. ISPRS Int J Geo Inf 5:12Google Scholar
  7. Benali A, Carvalho A, Nunes J, Carvalhais N, Santos A (2012) Estimating air surface temperature in Portugal using MODIS LST data. Remote Sens Environ 124:108–121Google Scholar
  8. Bosch M, & Chenal J (2019). Spatiotemporal patterns of urbanization in three Swiss urban agglomerations: insights from landscape metrics, growth modes and fractal analysis. BioRxiv, 645549Google Scholar
  9. Buyantuyev A, Wu J (2009a) Urban heat islands and landscape heterogeneity: linking spatiotemporal variations in surface temperatures to land-cover and socioeconomic patterns. Landsc Ecol 25:17–33Google Scholar
  10. Buyantuyev A, Wu J (2009b) Urbanization alters spatiotemporal patterns of ecosystem primary production: a case study of the Phoenix metropolitan region, USA. J Arid Environ 73:512–520Google Scholar
  11. Chan KW (2010) Fundamentals of China's urbanization and policy. China Rev 10:63–93Google Scholar
  12. Chen, L., Huang, F., Qi, H., & Zhai, H. (2018). Analysis of urban expansion and the driving forces in eastern coastal region of China. In, Remote Sensing Technologies and Applications in Urban Environments III (p. 107930S): International Society for Optics and PhotonicsGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen M, Lu D, Zhang H (2009) Comprehensive evaluation and the driving factors of China's urbanization. Acta Geograph Sin 64:387–398Google Scholar
  14. Chen T, Sun A, Niu R (2019) Effect of land cover fractions on changes in surface urban Heat Islands using Landsat time-series images. Int J Environ Res Public Health 16:971Google Scholar
  15. Chen T, Zhang X, Niu R (2017) The relationship between urban land surface material fractions and brightness temperature based on MESMA. Remote Sens 9:532Google Scholar
  16. Cheng J, Masser I (2003) Urban growth pattern modeling: a case study of Wuhan city, PR China. Landsc Urban Plan 62:199–217Google Scholar
  17. Chun B, Guldmann JM (2014) Spatial statistical analysis and simulation of the urban heat island in high-density central cities. Landsc Urban Plan 125:76–88Google Scholar
  18. Clinton N, Gong P (2013) MODIS detected surface urban heat islands and sinks: global locations and controls. Remote Sens Environ 134:294–304Google Scholar
  19. Dallimer M, Tang Z, Bibby PR, Brindley P, Gaston KJ, Davies ZG (2011) Temporal changes in greenspace in a highly urbanized region. Biol Lett 7:763–766Google Scholar
  20. Dean AM, Smith GM (2003) An evaluation of per-parcel land cover mapping using maximum likelihood class probabilities. Int J Remote Sens 24:2905–2920Google Scholar
  21. Deilami K, Kamruzzaman M, Liu Y (2018) Urban heat island effect: a systematic review of spatio-temporal factors, data, methods, and mitigation measures. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 67:30–42Google Scholar
  22. Ding C, Lichtenberg E (2011) Land and URBAN economic growth in China*. J Reg Sci 51:299–317Google Scholar
  23. Dos Santos AR, de Oliveira FS, da Silva AG, Gleriani JM, Goncalves W, Moreira GL, Silva FG, Branco ERF, Moura MM, da Silva RG, Juvanhol RS, de Souza KB, Ribeiro C, de Queiroz VT, Costa AV, Lorenzon AS, Domingues GF, Marcatti GE, de Castro NLM, Resende RT, Gonzales DE, de Almeida Telles LA, Teixeira TR, Dos Santos G, Mota PHS (2017) Spatial and temporal distribution of urban heat islands. Sci Total Environ 605-606:946–956Google Scholar
  24. Dou J, Miao S (2017) Impact of mass human migration during Chinese new year on Beijing urban heat island. Int J Climatol 37:4199–4210Google Scholar
  25. Du H, Song X, Jiang H, Kan Z, Wang Z, Cai Y (2016) Research on the cooling island effects of water body: a case study of Shanghai, China. Ecol Indic 67:31–38Google Scholar
  26. Foley JA, Defries R, Asner GP, Barford C, Bonan G, Carpenter SR, Chapin FS, Coe MT, Daily GC, Gibbs HK, Helkowski JH, Holloway T, Howard EA, Kucharik CJ, Monfreda C, Patz JA, Prentice IC, Ramankutty N, Snyder PK (2005) Global consequences of land use. Science 309:570–574Google Scholar
  27. Foody GM, Campbell NA, Trodd NM, Wood TF (1992) Derivation and applications of probabilistic measures of class membership from the maximum-likelihood classification. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 58:1335–1341Google Scholar
  28. Gallo KP, McNab AL, Karl TR, Brown JF, Hood JJ, Tarpley JD (1993) The use of NOAA AVHRR data for assessment of the urban heat island effect. J Appl Meteorol 32:899–908Google Scholar
  29. Gaubatz P (2009) China's urban transformation: patterns and processes of morphological change in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. Urban Stud 36:1495–1521Google Scholar
  30. Giorgio G, Ragosta M, Telesca V (2017) Climate variability and industrial-suburban heat environment in a Mediterranean area. Sustainability 9:775Google Scholar
  31. Grimm NB, Faeth SH, Golubiewski NE, Redman CL, Wu J, Bai X, Briggs JM (2008) Global change and the ecology of cities. Science 319:756–760Google Scholar
  32. Grimmond SUE (2007) Urbanization and global environmental change: local effects of urban warming. Geogr J 173:83–88Google Scholar
  33. He XF, Jiang WM, Chen Y, Liu G (2007) Numerical simulation of the impacts of anthropogenic heat on the structure of the urban boundary layer. Chin J Geophys 50:75–83Google Scholar
  34. Huang, L., Shen, H., Wu, P., Zhang, L., & Zeng, C. (2015). Relationships analysis of land surface temperature with vegetation indicators and impervious surface fraction by fusing multi-temporal and multi-sensor remotely sensed data. In, Urban Remote Sensing EventGoogle Scholar
  35. Huang Q, Huang J, Yang X, Fang C, Liang Y (2019) Quantifying the seasonal contribution of coupling urban land use types on urban Heat Island using land contribution index: a case study in Wuhan, China. Sustain Cities Soc 44:666–675Google Scholar
  36. Huete A, Didan K, Miura T, Rodriguez EP, Gao X, Ferreira LG (2002) Overview of the radiometric and biophysical performance of the MODIS vegetation indices. Remote Sens Environ 83:195–213Google Scholar
  37. Chester LA Jr, Gibbons CJ (1996) Impervious surface coverage: the emergence of a key environmental Indicator. J Am Plan Assoc 62:243–258Google Scholar
  38. Kalnay E, Cai M (2003) Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate. Nature 423:528–531Google Scholar
  39. Kato S, Yamaguchi Y (2007) Estimation of storage heat flux in an urban area using ASTER data. Remote Sens Environ 110:1–17Google Scholar
  40. Kaye J, Groffman P, Grimm N, Baker L, Pouyat R (2006) A distinct urban biogeochemistry? Trends Ecol Evol 21:192–199Google Scholar
  41. Kim JP, Guldmann JM (2014) Land-use planning and the urban heat island. Environ Plan B: Planning and Design 41.6:1077–1099Google Scholar
  42. Kong F, Sun C, Liu F, Yin H, Jiang F, Pu Y, Cavan G, Skelhorn C, Middel A, Dronova I (2016) Energy saving potential of fragmented green spaces due to their temperature regulating ecosystem services in the summer. Appl Energy 183:1428–1440Google Scholar
  43. Kuang W, Chi W, Dengsheng LU, Dou Y (2014) A comparative analysis of megacity expansions in China and the U.S.: patterns, rates and driving forces. Landsc Urban Plan 132:121–135Google Scholar
  44. Kumar R, Mishra V, Buzan J, Kumar R, Shindell D, Huber M (2017) Dominant control of agriculture and irrigation on urban heat island in India. Sci Rep 7:14054Google Scholar
  45. Li C, Li J, Wu J (2013) Quantifying the speed, growth modes, and landscape pattern changes of urbanization: a hierarchical patch dynamics approach. Landsc Ecol 28:1875–1888Google Scholar
  46. Li D, Bou-Zeid E (2013) Synergistic interactions between urban heat islands and heat waves: the impact in cities is larger than the sum of its parts. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 52:2051–2064Google Scholar
  47. Li D, Liao W, Rigden AJ, Liu X, Wang D, Malyshev S, Shevliakova E (2019) Urban heat island: aerodynamics or imperviousness? Sci Adv 5:eaau4299Google Scholar
  48. Li J, Song C, Cao L, Zhu F, Meng X, Wu J (2011) Impacts of landscape structure on surface urban heat islands: a case study of Shanghai, China. Remote Sens Environ 115:3249–3263Google Scholar
  49. Li X, Zhou Y, Asrar GR, Mao J, Li X, Li W (2017) Response of vegetation phenology to urbanization in the conterminous United States. Glob Chang Biol 23:2818–2830Google Scholar
  50. Liao W, Liu X, Wang D, Sheng Y (2017) The impact of energy consumption on the surface urban Heat Island in China's 32 major cities. Remote Sens 9:250Google Scholar
  51. Liu L, Zhang Y (2011) Urban Heat Island analysis using the Landsat TM data and ASTER data: a case study in Hong Kong. Remote Sens 3:1535–1552Google Scholar
  52. Liu Q, Yang Y, Tian H, Zhang B, Gu L (2014) Assessment of human impacts on vegetation in built-up areas in China based on AVHRR, MODIS and DMSP_OLS nighttime light data, 1992–2010. Chin Geogr Sci 24:231–244Google Scholar
  53. Liu Y, Li R, Song X (2005) Analysis of coupling degrees of urbanization and ecological environment in China. J Nat Resour 20:105–112Google Scholar
  54. Liu Y, Luo T, Liu Z, Kong X, Li J, Tan R (2015a) A comparative analysis of urban and rural construction land use change and driving forces: implications for urban–rural coordination development in Wuhan, Central China. Habitat Int 47:113–125Google Scholar
  55. Liu Y, Wang Y, Peng J, Du Y, Liu X, Li S, Zhang D (2015b) Correlations between urbanization and vegetation degradation across the World’s metropolises using DMSP/OLS nighttime light data. Remote Sens 7:2067–2088Google Scholar
  56. Luo J, Wei YHD (2009) Modeling spatial variations of urban growth patterns in Chinese cities: the case of Nanjing. Landsc Urban Plan 91:51–64Google Scholar
  57. Ma Y, Xu R (2010) Remote sensing monitoring and driving force analysis of urban expansion in Guangzhou City, China. Habitat International 34:228–235Google Scholar
  58. Manley G (1958) On the frequency of snowfall in metropolitan England. Q J R Meteorol Soc 84:70–72Google Scholar
  59. Masellia F, Conesea C, Petkovb L (1994) Use of probability entropy for the estimation and graphical representation of the accuracy of maximum likelihood classifications. ISPRS J Photogramm Remote Sens 49:13–20Google Scholar
  60. Melaas EK, Wang JA, Miller DL, Friedl MA (2016) Interactions between urban vegetation and surface urban heat islands: a case study in the Boston metropolitan region. Environ Res Lett 11:054020Google Scholar
  61. Miles V, Esau I (2017) Seasonal and spatial characteristics of urban heat islands (uhis) in northern west Siberian cities. Remote Sens 9:989Google Scholar
  62. Montgomery MR (2008) The urban transformation of the developing world. Science 319:761–764Google Scholar
  63. Morakinyo TE, Kong L, Lau KK-L, Yuan C, Ng E (2017) A study on the impact of shadow-cast and tree species on in-canyon and neighborhood's thermal comfort. Build Environ 115:1–17Google Scholar
  64. Morini E, Touchaei A, Castellani B, Rossi F, Cotana F (2016) The impact of albedo increase to mitigate the urban Heat Island in Terni (Italy) using the WRF model. Sustainability 8:999Google Scholar
  65. Nations U Department of economic and social affairs, population division (2012). World urbanization prospects: the 2011 revisionGoogle Scholar
  66. Neteler M (2010) Estimating daily land surface temperatures in mountainous environments by reconstructed MODIS LST data. Remote Sens 2:333–351Google Scholar
  67. Pablos M, Martínezfernández J, Piles M, Sánchez N, Vallllossera M, Camps A (2016) Multi-temporal evaluation of soil moisture and land surface temperature dynamics using in situ and satellite observations. Remote Sens 8:587Google Scholar
  68. Pathak V, Tripathi BD, Mishra VK (2008) Dynamics of traffic noise in a tropical city Varanasi and its abatement through vegetation. Environ Monit Assess 146:67–75Google Scholar
  69. Pei FS, Xia L, Liu XP, Wang SJ, He ZJ (2013) Assessing the differences in net primary productivity between pre- and post-urban land development in China. Agric For Meteorol 171-172:174–186Google Scholar
  70. Peng S, Piao S, Ciais P, Friedlingstein P, Ottle C, Bréon FM, Nan H, Zhou L, Myneni RB (2012) Surface urban heat island across 419 global big cities. Environ Sci Technol 46:696–703Google Scholar
  71. Perini K, Magliocco A (2014) Effects of vegetation, urban density, building height, and atmospheric conditions on local temperatures and thermal comfort. Urban For Urban Green 13:495–506Google Scholar
  72. Pickett ST, Cadenasso ML, Grove JM, Boone CG, Groffman PM, Irwin E, Kaushal SS, Marshall V, Mcgrath BP, Nilon CH (2011) Urban ecological systems: scientific foundations and a decade of progress. J Environ Manag 92:331–362Google Scholar
  73. Pouyat RV, Mcdonnell MJ, Pickett STA (1997) Litter decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in oak stands along an urban-rural land use gradient. Urban Ecosyst 1:117–131Google Scholar
  74. Rees M, Condit R, Crawley M, Pacala S, Tilman D (2001) Long-term studies of vegetation dynamics. Science 293:650–655Google Scholar
  75. Rhee J, Park S, Lu Z (2014) Relationship between land cover patterns and surface temperature in urban areas. Mapp Sci Remote Sens 51:521–536Google Scholar
  76. Ridd MK (1995) Exploring a V-I-S (vegetation-impervious surface-soil) model for urban ecosystem analysis through remote sensing: comparative anatomy for citiesâ†. Int J Remote Sens 16:2165–2185Google Scholar
  77. Riitters KH, O'Neill RV, Hunsaker CT, Wickham JD, Yankee DH, Timmins SP, Jones KB, Jackson BL (1995) A factor analysis of landscape pattern and structure metrics. Landsc Ecol 10:23–39Google Scholar
  78. Rimal B, Zhang L, Keshtkar H, Haack B, Rijal S, Zhang P (2018) Land use/land cover dynamics and modeling of urban land expansion by the integration of cellular automata and markov chain. ISPRS Int J Geo Inf 7:154Google Scholar
  79. Ruiz MA, Correa EN (2015) Suitability of different comfort indices for the prediction of thermal conditions in tree-covered outdoor spaces in arid cities. Theor Appl Climatol 122:69–83Google Scholar
  80. Seto KC, Guneralp B, Hutyra LR (2012) Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:16083–16088Google Scholar
  81. Shastri H, Barik B, Ghosh S, Venkataraman C, Sadavarte P (2017) Flip flop of day-night and summer-winter surface urban heat island intensity in India. Sci Rep 7:40178Google Scholar
  82. Shen H, Meng X, Zhang L (2016) An integrated framework for the spatio–temporal–spectral fusion of remote sensing images. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 54:7135–7148Google Scholar
  83. Shih W (2017) Greenspace patterns and the mitigation of land surface temperature in Taipei metropolis. Habitat Int 60:69–80Google Scholar
  84. Sun A, Chen T, Niu R-Q, Trinder JC (2016) Land use/cover change and the urbanization process in the Wuhan area from 1991 to 2013 based on MESMA. Environ Earth Sci 75:1214Google Scholar
  85. Sun J, Yang J, Zhang C, Yun W, Qu J (2013) Automatic remotely sensed image classification in a grid environment based on the maximum likelihood method. Math Comput Model 58:573–581Google Scholar
  86. Taha H (1997) Urban climates and heat islands: albedo, evapotranspiration, and anthropogenic heat. Energy and Buildings 25:99–103Google Scholar
  87. Tan R, Liu Y, Liu Y, He Q, Ming L, Tang S (2014) Urban growth and its determinants across the Wuhan urban agglomeration, central China. Habitat International 44:268–281Google Scholar
  88. Tran H, Uchihama D, Ochi S, Yasuoka Y (2006) Assessment with satellite data of the urban heat island effects in Asian mega cities. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 8:34–48Google Scholar
  89. Vibhute AD, Dhumal RK, Nagne AD, Rajendra YD, Kale K, & Mehrotra S (2016). Analysis, classification, and estimation of pattern for land of Aurangabad region using high-resolution satellite image. In, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer and Communication Technologies (pp. 413-427): springerGoogle Scholar
  90. Wan Z (2014) New refinements and validation of the MODIS land-surface temperature/emissivity products. Remote Sens Environ 112:59–74Google Scholar
  91. Wan Z, Dozier J (1996) A generalized split-window algorithm for retrieving land-surface temperature from space. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 34:892–905Google Scholar
  92. White MA, Nemani RR, Thornton PE, Running SW (2002) Satellite evidence of Phenological differences between urbanized and rural areas of the eastern United States deciduous broadleaf Forest. Ecosystems 5:260–273Google Scholar
  93. Wuhan Statistical Yearbook. (2017). In: China Statistics Press: BeijingGoogle Scholar
  94. Wu J, Hobbs R (2002) Key issues and research priorities in landscape ecology: an idiosyncratic synthesis. Landsc Ecol 17:355–365Google Scholar
  95. Wu W, Zhao S, Chao Z, Jiang J (2015) A comparative study of urban expansion in Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang over the past three decades. Landsc Urban Plan 134:93–106Google Scholar
  96. Bai X, Shi P, Liu Y (2014) Society: realizing China's urban dream. Nature 509:158–160Google Scholar
  97. Xie Q, Zhou Z (2015) Impact of urbanization on URBAN heat island effect based on tm imagery in Wuhan, China. Environ Eng Manag J(EEMJ) 14(3):647–655Google Scholar
  98. Xie Q, Liu J, Daohua HU (2016) Urban expansion and its impact on spatio-temporal variation of urban thermal characteristics:a case study of Wuhan. Geogr Res 35:1259–1272Google Scholar
  99. Xu C, Liu M, Cheng Z, An S, Wen Y, Chen JM (2007) The spatiotemporal dynamics of rapid urban growth in the Nanjing metropolitan region of China. Landsc Ecol 22:925–937Google Scholar
  100. Xu X, Min X (2013) Quantifying spatiotemporal patterns of urban expansion in China using remote sensing data. Cities 35:104–113Google Scholar
  101. Yang Q, Huang X, Li J (2017) Assessing the relationship between surface urban heat islands and landscape patterns across climatic zones in China. Sci Rep 7:9337Google Scholar
  102. Yang X, Zhao L, Bruse M, Meng Q (2013) Evaluation of a microclimate model for predicting the thermal behavior of different ground surfaces. Build Environ 60:93–104Google Scholar
  103. Yao R, Wang L, Gui X, Zheng Y, Zhang H, Huang X (2017) Urbanization effects on vegetation and surface urban Heat Islands in China’s Yangtze River basin. Remote Sens 9:540Google Scholar
  104. Yao R, Wang L, Huang X, Gong W, Xia X (2019) Greening in rural areas increases the surface urban heat island intensity. Geophys Res Lett 46:2204–2212Google Scholar
  105. Yao R, Wang L, Huang X, Niu Y, Chen Y, Niu Z (2018a) The influence of different data and method on estimating the surface urban heat island intensity. Ecol Indic 89:45–55Google Scholar
  106. Yao R, Wang L, Huang X, Zhang W, Li J, Niu Z (2018b) Interannual variations in surface urban heat island intensity and associated drivers in China. J Environ Manag 222:86–94Google Scholar
  107. Yow DM (2007) Urban heat islands: observations, impacts, and adaptation. Geogr Compass 1(6):1227–1251Google Scholar
  108. Yu W, Zhou W (2017) The spatiotemporal pattern of urban expansion in China: a comparison study of three urban megaregions. Remote Sens 9:45Google Scholar
  109. Yu Y, Hu S, Tong Y, Yuanyuan K (2017) Research on modeling for urban expansion pattern recognition based on shared boundary analysis. Geogr Geo-Inform Sci 33:78–81Google Scholar
  110. Yuan F, Bauer ME (2007) Comparison of impervious surface area and normalized difference vegetation index as indicators of surface urban heat island effects in Landsat imagery. Remote Sens Environ 106:375–386Google Scholar
  111. Zang B, Lin S, Su J, & Xie S (2014). Nearly 20 years in Wuhan urbanization coupled with the space-time evolution of the Lake. Science & Technology InformationGoogle Scholar
  112. Zhang J, Wu L, Yuan F, Dou J, Miao S (2015) Mass human migration and Beijing’s urban heat island during the Chinese new year holiday. Sci Bull 60:1038–1041Google Scholar
  113. Zhang X, Friedl MA, Schaaf CB, Strahler AH, Schneider A (2004) The footprint of urban climates on vegetation phenology. Geophys Res Lett 31:179–206Google Scholar
  114. Zhang Z, Liu F, Zhao X, Wang X, Shi L, Xu J, Yu S, Wen Q, Zuo L, Yi L (2018) Urban expansion in China based on remote sensing technology: a review. Chin Geogr Sci 28:727–743Google Scholar
  115. Zhao S, Liu S, Zhou D (2016) Prevalent vegetation growth enhancement in urban environment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113:6313–6318Google Scholar
  116. Zhao S, Zhou D, Zhu C, Qu W, Zhao J, Sun Y, Huang D, Wu W, Liu S (2015) Rates and patterns of urban expansion in China’s 32 major cities over the past three decades. Landsc Ecol 30:1541–1559Google Scholar
  117. Zhou D, Zhang L, Li D, Huang D, Zhu C (2016) Climate–vegetation control on the diurnal and seasonal variations of surface urban heat islands in China. Environ Res Lett 11:074009Google Scholar
  118. Zhou D, Zhao S, Liu S, Zhang L (2014a) Spatiotemporal trends of terrestrial vegetation activity along the urban development intensity gradient in China's 32 major cities. Sci Total Environ 488-489:136–145Google Scholar
  119. Zhou D, Zhao S, Liu S, Zhang L, Chao Z (2014b) Surface urban heat island in China's 32 major cities: spatial patterns and drivers. Remote Sens Environ 152:51–61Google Scholar
  120. Zhou D, Zhao S, Zhang L, Sun G, Liu Y (2015) The footprint of urban heat island effect in China. Sci Rep 5:11160Google Scholar
  121. Zipper SC, Schatz J, Singh A, Kucharik CJ, Townsend PA, Loheide SP (2016) Urban heat island impacts on plant phenology: intra-urban variability and response to land cover. Environ Res Lett 11:054023Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hubei Key Laboratory of Critical Zone Evolution, School of Geography and Information EngineeringChina University of GeosciencesWuhanChina
  2. 2.Remote Sensing Centre of Hunan ProvinceChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations