Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 30, pp 30794–30807 | Cite as

Soil-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and zeolite addition to soil synergistically increase grain yield and reduce cadmium uptake of bread wheat (through improved nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition and immobilization of Cd in roots)

  • Amir Hossein BaghaieEmail author
  • Forough Aghili
  • Reza Jafarinia
Research Article


Soil pollution with heavy metals is a major problem in industrial areas. Here, we explored whether zeolite addition to soil and indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can reduce cadmium (Cd) uptake from soil by bread wheat. We conducted a pot experiment, in which the effects of indigenous soil AMF, zeolite addition, and Cd spiking to soil [0, 5, 10, and 15 mg (kg soil)−1] were tested. Zeolite addition to soil spiked with 15 mg Cd kg−1 decreased the Cd uptake to grains from 11.8 to 8.3 mg kg−1 and 8.9 to 3.3 mg kg−1 in the absence and presence of indigenous AMF, respectively. Positive growth, nitrogen (N), and phosphorous (P) uptake responses to mycorrhization in Cd-spiked soils were consistently magnified by zeolite addition. Zeolite addition to soil stimulated AMF root colonization. The abundance of AMF taxa changed in response to zeolite addition to soil and soil Cd spiking as measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. With increasing Cd spiking, the abundance of Funneliformis increased. However, when less Cd was spiked to soil and/or when zeolite was added, the abundance of Claroideoglomus and Rhizophagus increased. This study showed that soil-indigenous AMF and addition of zeolite to soil can lower Cd uptake to the grains of bread wheat and thereby reduce Cd contamination of the globally most important staple food.


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Bio-immobilization Heavy metal contamination Zeolite 



The authors would like to thank the Arak Brach, Islamic Azad University, for its support. We appreciate the critical comments by two anonymous reviewers that helped us a lot to improve and clarify the main message of this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Soil Science, Arak BranchIslamic Azad UniversityArakIran
  2. 2.Young Researchers and Elite Club, Arak BranchIslamic Azad UniversityArakIran
  3. 3.Department of Water Engineering, Arak BranchIslamic Azad UniversityArakIran

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