Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 30, pp 31158–31165 | Cite as

Traces of intact paraben molecules in endometrial carcinoma

  • Selen DoganEmail author
  • Timur Tongur
  • Taner Erkaymaz
  • Gulgun Erdogan
  • Betul Unal
  • Bulent Sik
  • Tayup Simsek
Research Article


Endometrial carcinoma is the most commonly encountered gynecological cancer in women worldwide and is also one of the popular models of the hormone-dependent carcinomas. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the concentrations of five paraben molecules (methylparaben, ethylparaben, N-propylparaben, benzylparaben, isobutylparaben + N-butylparaben) in the endometrial and myometrial tissue samples of patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma and benign gynecologic diseases. A total of 88 patients were included in the study and chemical analysis was performed on 176 tissue samples. The study group comprised of 33 patients with endometrial carcinoma and 6 patients with endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia. The control group comprised of 49 patients. One endometrial and one myometrial tissue samples were collected from each patient. The analyses were performed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). At least one type of paraben molecule was detected in 23.07% (9/39) of the patients in the study group, and in 2.04% (1/49) of the patients in the control group; this difference between the groups was statistically significant (p = .002). N-Propylparaben and isobutyl + N-butylparaben were the most frequently detected (in 7/10 of the samples) paraben molecules in the study. Tumor characteristics (tumor diameter, myometrial invasion, architectural grade, nuclear grade, lymphovascular space invasion, and tumor stage) were comparable between the two groups of endometrial carcinoma (paraben-detected and paraben-undetected groups). In conclusion, paraben molecules were more frequently detected in the endometrial carcinoma tissue samples than in the normal endometrium.


Carcinoma Endometrium Estrogen Hormone structure and function Endocrine-disrupting chemicals Environmental toxicology 


Author contributions

SD: Methodology, formal analysis and investigation, conceptualization, writing—original draft preparation, writing—review and editing; TT, TE, and BS: Formal analysis and investigation, methodology, validation; GE and BU: Conceptualization; TS: Supervision; All authors: Final approval of the manuscript

Funding information

This study was financially supported by the Coordination Unit, Scientific Research Project Council of the Akdeniz University.

Compliance with ethical standards

This study was approved by the ethical committee of the Akdeniz University. Informed consent from participants was obtained

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Gynecologic OncologyAntalya Training and Research HospitalAntalyaTurkey
  2. 2.Food Safety and Research InstituteAkdeniz UniversityAntalyaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of PathologyAkdeniz UniversityAntalyaTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Gynecologic OncologyAkdeniz UniversityAntalyaTurkey

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