Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 31, pp 31763–31769 | Cite as

Evaluate the effect of cadmium on levels of zinc in scalp hair and blood samples of smoker and nonsmoker psoriatic patients at different stage

  • Suraya Samejo
  • Atif G. Kazi
  • Hassan I. AfridiEmail author
  • Tasneem G. Kazi
Research Article


Psoriasis, a skin inflammatory disease, originates from dysregulated interactions of the immune system and environmental factors. In the present study, cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed in biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of smoker and nonsmoker males who have mild and severe psoriasis. The patients were evaluated according to criteria based on the standard clinical diagnosis and classified into mild and severe psoriasis groups using the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) score. Both elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after matrix oxidation. In smoker psoriatic patients, the level of Cd in biological samples was significantly increased. The Zn was significantly decreased in smoker mild and severe psoriatic patients as related to nonsmokers’ referents and patients. The resulted data indicated that the levels of Zn in smoker referents were about 5.0% lower than nonsmoker’s referents. While the concentrations of Zn in blood samples of nonsmoker’s mild and severe psoriatic patients have 17.8 to 33.3% lower than nonsmoker’s referents. The results indicate that the level of Cd in blood samples of referent smokers has ≥ 25% than nonsmokers, whereas the psoriatic patients at different stages have two- to threefold higher Cd in both biological samples.


Zinc Cadmium Smokers Biological samples Psoriasis Atomic absorption spectrometer 


Compliance with ethical standards

The approval for biological sampling was got from the Ethical Committee of advanced study and research of the University of Sindh, Jamshoro. The verbal/written consent was attained from the controls/patients before sample collection.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suraya Samejo
    • 1
  • Atif G. Kazi
    • 2
  • Hassan I. Afridi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tasneem G. Kazi
    • 1
  1. 1.National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry (NCEAC)University of SindhJamshoroPakistan
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyLiaquat University of Medical and Health SciencesJamshoroPakistan

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