Evaluation of groundwater hardness removal using activated clinoptilolite

  • Weixing Liu
  • Rajendra Prasad Singh
  • Saravanan Jothivel
  • Dafang FuEmail author
Resource Recovery from Wastewater, Solid Waste and Waste Gas: Engineering and Management Aspects


Current study aimed to investigate modified natural clinoptilolite for removal of calcium and magnesium from the groundwater. Feasibility of clinoptilolite for groundwater hardness removal in production and operation was verified by static adsorption experiment and the experiment of fixed bed and degasification column. Subsequently, the main parameters for groundwater treatment using clinoptilolite were also explored. Results show that in the process of clinoptilolite in adsorption is dominant reaction process. The adsorption equilibrium time was unchanged when the hardness of raw water changes from 450 to 550 mg/L. With respect to comparative analysis of price and performance, NaCl found to be the most suitable clinoptilolite regenerated agent. The adsorption efficiency was high when the residence time was 20–25 min in the pilot experiments. The reaction mechanism was mainly substitution reaction according to ion equilibrium, and the treatment capacity of the degasifier combined with the fixed bed was 20% higher than that of with only fixed bed.


Groundwater Hardness Activated zeolite Adsorption Degasifier 


Funding information

This work was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2018YFC0809904).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Weixing Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rajendra Prasad Singh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Saravanan Jothivel
  • Dafang Fu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Civil EngineeringSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Southeast University-Monash Joint Research Centre for Future CitiesNanjingChina

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