Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 30, pp 30907–30920 | Cite as

Will the antimicrobial properties of ZnONPs turn it into a more suitable option than AgNPs for water filtration? Comparative study in the removal of fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila from the culture of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

  • Tayebeh Nemati
  • Seyed Ali JohariEmail author
  • Mehrdad Sarkheil
Research Article


The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) instead of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for removing Aeromonas hydrophila from water used to culture Cyprinus carpio juvenile. Antibacterial materials as filter media were prepared by coating ZnONPs (two coating methods, referred as ZnA and ZnB) or AgNPs (referred as Ag) on the porous surfaces of zeolite beads. The characterization of coated samples was determined using FESEM, EDS, and GFAAS. The antibacterial activities of prepared samples were evaluated by the zone of inhibition test, tube test, and flow test. The diameter of inhibitory zones formed by ZnONP- and AgNP-coated zeolite beads was significantly higher than uncoated zeolite (control) (P < 0.05). Also, the tube test results revealed 100% killing of the bacterial cells after 24 h of contact to all coated materials. In the flow test (without fish), the antibacterial efficiency of filter columns that contained ZnA, ZnB, and Ag found to be 34.84, 23.77, and 100% after 96 h, respectively. The mortality rate of carp juveniles cultured in infected water treated with AgNP filters was significantly lower than those cultured in infected water or treated with ZnONPs filters (P < 0.05). The results indicated that although ZnONP filter media have somewhat antimicrobial properties (especially in vitro), their ability to complete removal of microorganisms from the water is not as high as AgNP filters. So, it still seems that zeolite coated with AgNPs has a higher potential for water disinfection in aquaculture.


Nanotechnology Water treatment Zinc oxide nanoparticles Silver nanoparticles Aquaculture Disinfection 


Funding information

This study was financially supported by the University of Kurdistan (UOK, Iran) under the research grant No. GRC96-06503-1.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Agnihotri S, Mukherji S, Mukherji S (2013) Immobilized silver nanoparticles enhance contact killing and show highest efficacy: elucidation of the mechanism of bactericidal action of silver. Nanoscale 5:7328–7340. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwal H, Menon S, Kumar SV, Rajeshkumar S (2018) Mechanistic study on antibacterial action of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using green route. Chem Biol Interact 286:60–70. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arkoosh MR, Boylen D, Stafford CL, Johnson LL, Collier TK (2005) Use of disease challenge assay to assess immunotoxicity of xenobiotics in fish. In: techniques in aquatic toxicology 2 (edited by Ostrander, G. K.), pp 19-38Google Scholar
  4. Baun A, Hartmann NB, Grieger K, Kusk KO (2008) Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing. Ecotoxicology 17:387–395. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brayner R, Ferrari-Iliou R, Brivois N, Djediat S, Benedetti MF, Fie’vet, F. (2006) Toxicological impact studies based on Escherichia coli bacteria in ultrafine ZnO nanoparticles colloidal medium. Nano Lett 6(4):866–870.
  6. Bryaskova R, Pencheva D, Nikolov S, Kantardjiev T (2011) Synthesis and comparative study on the antimicrobial activity of hybrid materials based on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). J Biol Chem 4:185–191. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carlson C, Hussain SM, Schrand AM, Braydich-Stolle LK, Hess KL, Jones RL, Schlager JJ (2008) Unique cellular interaction of silver nanoparticles: size-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species. J Phys Chem B 112:13608–13619. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chakra CHS, Rajendar V, Rao KV, Kumar M (2017) Enhanced antimicrobial and anticancer properties of ZnO and TiO2 nanocomposites. 3 Biotech 7(2):89. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chupani L, Zusková E, Niksirat H, Panáček A, Lünsmann V, Haange S-B, von Bergen M, Jehmlich N (2017) Effects of chronic dietary exposure of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the serum protein profile of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Sci Total Environ 579:1504–1511. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chupani L, Niksirat H, Lünsmann V, Haange S-B, von Bergen M, Jehmlich N, Zuskova E (2018a) Insight into the modulation of intestinal proteome of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after dietary exposure to ZnO nanoparticles. Sci Total Environ 613:62–71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chupani L, Niksirat H, Velíšek J, Stará A, Hradilová Š, Kolařík J, Panáček A, Zusková E (2018b) Chronic dietary toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): tissue accumulation and physiological responses. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 147:110–116. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cong Y, Jin F, Wang J, Mu J (2017) The embryo toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma. Aquat Toxicol 185:11–18. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dekani L, Johari SA, Joo HS (2019) Comparative toxicity of organic, inorganic and nanoparticulate zinc following dietary exposure to common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Sci Total Environ 656:1191–1198. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dimapilis, E.A.S., Hsu, C.S., Mendoza, R.M.O, Lu, M.C., 2017. Zinc oxide nanoparticles for water disinfection. Sustain Environ Res 28(2), 47–56.
  15. Feng QL, Wu J, Chen GQ, Cui FZ, Kim TN, Kim JO (2000) A mechanistic study of the antibacterial effect of silver ions on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. J Biomed Mater Res Part B 52:662–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Franci G, Falanga A, Galdiero S (2015) Silver nanoparticles as potential antibacterial agents. Molecules 20(5):8856–8874. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gunawan P, Guan C, Song X, Zhang Q, Leong SSJ, Tang C, Chen Y, Chan-Park MB, Chang MW, Wang K, Xu R (2011) Hollow fiber membrane decorated with ag/MWNTs: toward effective water disinfection and biofouling control. ACS Nano 5(12):10033–10040. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hao L, Chen L, Hao J, Zhong N (2013) Bioaccumulation and sub-acute toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio): a comparative study with its bulk counterparts. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 91:52–60. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hao L, Chen L (2012) Oxidative stress responses in different organs of carp (Cyprinus carpio) with exposure to ZnO nanoparticles. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 80:103–110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Harikrishnan R, Rani MN, Balasundaram C (2003) Hematological and biochemical parameters in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, following herbal treatment for Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Aquaculture 221:41–50. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harikrishnan R, Balasundaram C (2005) Modern trends in Aeromonas hydrophila disease management with fish. Rev Fish Sci 13(4):281–320. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Heinlaan M, Ivask A, Blinova I, Dubourguier HC, Kahru A (2008) Toxicity of nanosized and bulk ZnO, CuO and TiO2 to bacteria Vibrio fischeri and crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus. Chemosphere 71:1308–1316. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jain P, Pradeep T (2005) Potential of silver nanoparticle-coated polyurethane foam as an antibacterial water filter. Biotechnol Bioeng 90(1):59–63. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jalal R, Goharshadi EK, Abareshi M, Moosavi M, Yousefi A, Nancarrow P (2010) ZnO nanofluids: green synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activity. Mater Chem Phys 121(1):198–201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Johari SA, Kalbassi MR, Soltani M, Yu IJ (2016) Application of nanosilver-coated zeolite as water filter media for fungal disinfection of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. Aquac Int 24(1):23–338. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Johari SA, Sarkheil M, Behzadi Tayemeh M, Veisi S (2018) Influence of salinity on the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) in halophilic microalgae, Dunaliella salina. Chemosphere 209:156–162. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kasemets K, Ivask A, Dubourguier HC, Kahru A (2009) Toxicity of nanoparticles of ZnO, CuO and TiO2 to yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Toxicol in Vitro 23(6):1116–1122. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Khan MS, Jabeen F, Qureshi NA, Asghar MS, Shakeel M, Noureen A (2015) Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in fish: a critical review. J. Biodivers. Environ. Sci. 6(5):211–227Google Scholar
  29. Khosravi-Katuli, K., Shabani, A., Paknejad, H., Imanpoor, M.R., 2018. Comparative toxicity of silver nanoparticle and ionic silver in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Accumulation, physiology and histopathology. Journal of Hazardous Materials 359:373–381.
  30. Li M, Zhu L, Lin D (2011) Toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to Escherichia coli: mechanism and the influence of medium components. Environ Sci Technol 45(5):1977–1983. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Li X, Lenhart JJ, Walker HW (2012) Aggregation kinetics and dissolution of coated silver nanoparticles. Langmuir 28(2):1095–1104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lilley JH, Hart D, Richards RH, Roberts RJ, Cerenius L, Soderhall K (1997) Pan-Asian spread of single fungal clone results in large-scale fish kills. Vet Rec 140:653–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lv Y, Liu H, Wang Z, Liu SH, Hao L, Sang Y, Liu D, Wang J, Boughton RI (2009) Silver nanoparticle decorated porous ceramic composite for water treatment. J Membr Sci 331:50–56. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mahanty A, Mishra S, Bosu R, Maurya UK, Netam SP, Sarkar B (2013) Phytoextracts-synthesized silver nanoparticles inhibit bacterial fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. Indian J Microbiol 53(4):438–446. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Marambio-Jones C, Hoek EMVA (2010) A review of the antibacterial effects of silver nanomaterials and potential implications for human health and the environment. J Nanopart Res 12:1531–1551. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mpenyana-Monyatsi L, Mthombeni NH, Onyango MS, Momba MNB (2012) Cost-effective filter materials coated with silver nanoparticles for the removal of pathogenic bacteria in groundwater. Int J Environ Res Public Health 9:244–271. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Morones JR, Elechiguerra JL, Camacho A, Ramirez JT (2005) The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles. Nanotechnology 16:2346–2353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Noga, E.J., 2010. Fish disease – diagnosis and treatment . 2nd Edn., New Jersey, Hoboken, Wiley - Blackwell. PP: 197–350Google Scholar
  39. Padmavathy N, Vijayaraghavan R (2008) Enhanced bioactivity of ZnO nanoparticles as an antimicrobial study. Sci Technol Adv Mater 9:035004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Park K-H, Han GD, Neoh KC, Kim T-S, Shim JH, Park H-D (2017) Antibacterial activity of the thin ZnO film formed by atomic layer deposition under UV-A light. Chem Eng Sci 328:988–996. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Quang DV, Sarawade PB, Jeon SJ, Kim SH, Kim JK, Chai YG, Kim HT (2013) Effective water disinfection using silver nanoparticle containing silica beads. Appl Surf Sci 266:280–287. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rai MK, Deshmukh SD, Ingle AP, Gade AK (2012) Silver nanoparticles: the powerful nanoweapon against multidrug-resistant bacteria. J Appl Microbiol 112(5):841–852. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Reverter M, Bontem N, Lecchini D, Banaigs B, Sasal P (2014) Use of plant extracts in fish aquaculture as an alternative to chemotherapy: current status and future perspectives. Aquaculture 433:50–61. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rodríguez I, Novoa B, Figueras A (2008) Immune response of zebrafish (Danio rerio) against a newly isolated bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish Shellfish Immunol 25(3):239–249. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sanatgar-Delshade E, Habibi-Yangjeh A, Khodadadi-Moghaddam M (2011) Hydrothermal low-temperature preparation and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles supported on natural zeolite as a highly efficient photocatalyst. Monatshefte für Chemie-Chemical Monthly 142(2):119–129. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Salari-Joo H, Kalbassi MR, Johari SA (2012) Effect of water salinity on acute toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae. Iran J Health Environ 5(1):121–132 Accessed 22 Aug 2019Google Scholar
  47. Sarkar B, Mahanty A, Netam SP, Mishra S, Pradhan N, Samanta M (2012) Inhibitory role of silver nanoparticles against important fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila. Int J Nano Biostructures 2(4):70–74Google Scholar
  48. Sarkheil M, Sourinejad I, Mirbakhsh M, Kordestani D, Johari SA (2016) Application of silver nanoparticles immobilized on TEPA-Den-SiO2 as water filter media for bacterial disinfection in culture of penaeid shrimp larvae. Aquac Eng 74:17–29. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sarkheil M, Sourinejad I, Mirbakhsh M, Kordestani D, Johari SA (2017) Antibacterial activity of immobilized silver nanoparticles on TEPA-Den-SiO2 against shrimp pathogen, Vibrio sp. Persian1. Aquac Res 48(5):2120–2132. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schwartz VB, Thétiot F, Ritz S, Pütz S, Choritz L, Lappas A, Förch R, Landfester, K, Jonas U (2012) Antibacterial Surface Coatings from Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Embedded in Poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogel Surface Layers. Advanced Functional Materials 22(11), 2376-2386.
  51. Shao J, Liu J, Xiang L (2004) Aeromonas hydrophila induces apoptosis in Carassius auratus lymphocytes in vitro. Aquaculture 229:11–23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sirelkhatim A, Mahmud S, Seeni A, Kaus NHM, Ann LC, Bakhori SKM, Hasan H, Mohamad D (2015) Review on zinc oxide nanoparticles: antibacterial activity and toxicity mechanism. Nano-Micro Letters 7(3):219–242. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sotiriou GA, Pratsinis SE (2010) Antibacterial activity of nanosilver ions and particles. Environ Sci Technol 44:5649–5654. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stoimenov PK, Klinger RL, Marchin GL, Klabunde KJ (2002) Metal oxide nanoparticles as bactericidal agents. Langmuir 18:6679–6686. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Subashkumar S, Selvanayagam M (2014) First report on: acute toxicity and gill histopathology of fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio exposed to zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. Int J Sci Res Publ 4(3):1–4Google Scholar
  56. Swain P, Sasmal A, Nayak SK, Barik SK, Mishra SS, Mohapatra KD, Swain SK, Saha JN, Sen AK, Jayasankar P (2016) Evaluation of selected metal nanoparticles on hatching and survival of larvae and fry of Indian major carp, rohu (Labeo rohita). Aquac Res 47(2):498–511. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Toodehzaeim MH, Zandi H, Meshkani H, Hosseinzadeh Firouzabadi A (2018) The effect of CuO nanoparticles on antimicrobial effects and shear bond strength of orthodontic adhesives. DENTJODS 19(1):1–5Google Scholar
  58. Wang BL, Liu XS, Ji Y, Ren KF, Ji J (2012a) Fast and long-acting antibacterial properties of chitosan-ag/polyvinylpyrrolidone nanocomposite films. Carbohydr Polym 90:8–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wang Z, Chen J, Li X, Shao J, Peijnenburg WJ (2012b) Aquatic toxicity of nanosilver colloids to different trophic organisms: contributions of particles and free silver ion. Environ Toxicol Chem 31(10):2408–2413. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ye N, Wang Z, Wang S, Peijnenburg WJGM (2018) Toxicity of mixtures of zinc oxide and graphene oxide nanoparticles to aquatic organisms of different trophic level: particles outperform dissolved ions. Nanotoxicology 12(5):423–438. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yue Y, Li X, Sigg L, Suter MJF, Pillai S, Behra R (2017) Interaction of silver nanoparticles with algae and fish cells: a side by side comparison. J NANOBIOTECHNOL 15(16):1–11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhang LL, Jiang YH, Ding YL, Daskalakis N, Jeuken L, Povey M, O’Neill AJ, York DW (2010) Mechanistic investigation into antibacterial behaviour of suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles against E. coli. J Nanopart Res 12:1625–1636. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zhang L, Jiang Y, Ding Y, Povey M, York D (2007) Investigation into the antibacterial behavior of suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO nanofluids). J Nanopart Res 9(3):479–489. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zimbone M, Buccheri MA, Cacciato G, Sanz R, Rappazzo G, Boninelli S, Reitano R, Romano L, Privitera V, Grimaldi MG (2015) Photocatalytical and antibacterial activity of TiO2 nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation in water. Appl Catal B Environ 165:487–494. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural ResourcesUniversity of KurdistanSanandajIslamic Republic of Iran
  2. 2.Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources and EnvironmentFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran

Personalised recommendations