Adsorptive removal of strontium ions from aqueous solution by graphene oxide

  • Min Xing
  • Shuting Zhuang
  • Jianlong WangEmail author
Research Article


Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared, characterized, and applied for adsorption of Sr(II) in aqueous solution. The adsorption capacity was calculated to be 137.80 mg/g according to the Langmuir model. The observation by scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDX), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the crystal structure of Sr compound on the surface of graphene sheets. The analyses by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated the involvement of O–C=O, C–O, and C–O–C groups during the adsorption. The X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis provided the detail information of GO-Sr composites, and the fitting results were given by Sr(HCOO)2 and SrCO3 model, and the coordination numbers (CN) and interatomic distances (R) of Sr–O shell and Sr–C shell were calculated. The adsorption mechanism of Sr(II) was attributed to complexation between Sr and the acidic oxygen-containing groups, which lead to the agglomeration of graphene oxide. Two types of crystals were proposed. Type 1 was formed by coordination between Sr(II) and O–C=O groups, and type 2 was formed by coordination between Sr(II) and C–O/C–O–C groups.


Graphene oxide Sr(II) Adsorption XAFS Mechanism 


Funding information

The research was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program (2016YFC1402507), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51578307), and the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (IRT-13026).


  1. Ahmaruzzaman M, Gupta VK (2011) Rice husk and its ash as low-cost adsorbents in water and wastewater treatment. Ind Eng Chem Res 50:13589–13613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Caccin M, Giacobbo F, Da Ros M, Besozzi L, Mariani M (2013) Adsorption of uranium, cesium and strontium onto coconut shell activated carbon. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 297:9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chang KK, Li X, Liao Q, Hu BW, Hu J, Sheng GD, Linghu WS, Huang YY, Asiri AM, Alamry KA (2017) Molecular insights into the role of fulvic acid in cobalt sorption onto graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide. Chem Eng J 327:320–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chegrouche S, Mellah A, Barkat M (2009) Removal of strontium from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto activated carbon: kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Desalination 235:306–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen YW, Wang JL (2011) Preparation and characterization of magnetic chitosan nanoparticles and its application for Cu (II) removal. Chem Eng J 168:286–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen YW, Wang JL (2012a) Removal of radionuclide Sr2+ ions from aqueous solution using synthesized magnetic chitosan beads. Nucl Eng Des 242:445–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen YW, Wang JL (2012b) The characteristics and mechanism of Co(II) removal from aqueous solution by a novel xanthate-modified magnetic chitosan. Nucl Eng Des 242:452–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen CL, Hu J, Xu D, Tan XL, Meng YD, Wang XK (2008) Surface complexation modeling of Sr(II) and Eu(III) adsorption onto oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes. J Colloid Interface Sci 323:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chisholm-Brause C, O'day P, Brown G, Parks G (1990) Evidence for multinuclear metal-ion complexes at solid/water interfaces from X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Nature 348:528–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dastgheib SA, Rockstraw DA (2002) A systematic study and proposed model of the adsorption of binary metal ion solutes in aqueous solution onto activated carbon produced from pecan shells. Carbon 40:1853–1861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gerke TL, Little BJ, Luxton TP, Scheckel KG, Maynard JB, Szabo JG (2014) Strontium adsorption and desorption reactions in model drinking water distribution systems. J Water Supply Res T 63:449–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gu DG, Fein JB (2015) Adsorption of metals onto graphene oxide: surface complexation modeling and linear free energy relationships. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 481:319–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Guo X, Wang JL (2019a) A general kinetic model for adsorption: theoretical analysis and modeling. J Mol Liq 288:111100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Guo X, Wang JL (2019b) The phenomenological mass transfer kinetics model for Sr2+ sorption onto spheroids primary microplastics. Environ Pollut 250:737–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hong Y, Brown DG (2006) Cell surface acid-base properties of Escherichia coli and Bacillus brevis and variation as a function of growth phase, nitrogen source and C:N ratio. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 50:112–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huang ZH, Zheng XY, Lv W, Wang M, Yang QH, Kang FY (2011) Adsorption of lead(II) ions from aqueous solution on low-temperature exfoliated graphene nanosheets. Langmuir 27:7558–7562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hummers WS, Offeman RE (1958) Preparation of graphitic oxide. J Am Chem Soc 80(6):1339–1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jia F, Li JF, Wang JL, Sun YL (2017) Removal of strontium ions from simulated radioactive wastewater by vacuum membrane distillation. Ann Nucl Energy 103:363–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaewmee P, Manyam J, Opaprakasit P, Truc LGT, Chanlek N, Sreearunothai P (2017) Effective removal of cesium by pristine graphene oxide: performance, characterizations and mechanisms. RSC Adv 7:38747–38756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kamel NHM (2010) Adsorption models of 137Cs radionuclide and Sr(II) on some Egyptian soils. J Environ Radioact 101:297–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Khani H, Rofouei MK, Arab P, Gupta VK, Vafaei Z (2010) Multi-walled carbon nanotubes-ionic liquid-carbon paste electrode as a super selectivity sensor: application to potentiometric monitoring of mercury ion(II). J Hazard Mater 183:402–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kumar ASK, Rajesh N (2013) Exploring the interesting interaction between graphene oxide, Aliquat-336 (a room temperature ionic liquid) and chromium(VI) for wastewater treatment. RSC Adv 3:2697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li DM, Zhang B, Xuan FQ (2015a) The sequestration of Sr(II) and Cs(I) from aqueous solutions by magnetic graphene oxides. J Mol Liq 209:508–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li ZJ, Wang L, Yuan LY, Xiao CL, Mei L, Zheng LR, Zhang J, Yang JH, Zhao YL, Zhu ZT, Chai ZF, Shi WQ (2015b) Efficient removal of uranium from aqueous solution by zero-valent iron nanoparticle and its graphene composite. J Hazard Mater 290:26–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mishra AK, Ramaprabhu S (2011) Functionalized graphene sheets for arsenic removal and desalination of sea water. Desalination 282:39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mittal A, Mittal J, Malviya A, Gupta VK (2010) Removal and recovery of Chrysoidine Y from aqueous solutions by waste materials. J Colloid Interface Sci 344:497–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mutoro E, Crumlin EJ, Biegalski MD, Christen HM, Shao-Horn Y (2011) Enhanced oxygen reduction activity on surface-decorated perovskite thin films for solid oxide fuel cells, Energy Environ. Sci. 4:3689Google Scholar
  28. Ohkubo T, Nishi M, Kuroda Y (2011) Actual structure of dissolved zinc ion restricted in less than 1 nanometer micropores of carbon. J Phys Chem C 115:14954–14959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ren XM, Li JX, Tan XL, Wang XK (2013) Comparative study of graphene oxide, activated carbon and carbon nanotubes as adsorbents for copper decontamination. Dalton Trans 42:5266–5274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Romanchuk AY, Slesarev AS, Kalmykov SN, Kosynkin DV, Tour JM (2013) Graphene oxide for effective radionuclide removal. Phys Chem Chem Phys 15:2321–2327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Saleh TK, Gupta VK (2012) Photo-catalyzed degradation of hazardous dye methyl orange by use of a composite catalyst consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and titanium dioxide. J Colloid Interface Sci 371:101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shawabkeh RA, Rockstraw DA, Bhada RK (2002) Copper and strontium adsorption by a novel carbon material manufactured from pecan shells. Carbon 40:781–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Showalter AR, Duster TA, Szymanowski JES, Na C, Fein JB, Bunker BA (2017) An X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy study of metal sorption to graphene oxide. J Colloid Interface Sci 508:75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sitko R, Turek E, Zawisza B, Malicka E, Talik E, Heimann J, Gagor A, Feist B, Wrzalik R (2013) Adsorption of divalent metal ions from aqueous solutions using graphene oxide. Dalton Trans 42:5682–5689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sofer Z, Wang L, Klímová K, Pumera M (2014) Highly selective uptake of Ba2+ and Sr2+ ions by graphene oxide from mixtures of IIA elements. RSC Adv 4:26673–26676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sun YB, Wang Q, Chen CL, Tan XL, Wang XK (2012) Interaction between Eu(III) and graphene oxide nanosheets investigated by batch and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and by modeling techniques. Environ Sci Technol 46:6020–6027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tan P, Sun J, Hu YY, Fang Z, Bi Q, Chen YC, Cheng JH (2015) Adsorption of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ from aqueous single metal solutions on graphene oxide membranes. J Hazard Mater 297:251–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tan LQ, Wang S, Du WG, Hu T (2016) Effect of water chemistries on adsorption of Cs(I) onto graphene oxide investigated by batch and modeling techniques. Chem Eng J 292:92–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tan P, Bi Q, Hu YY, Fang Z, Chen YC, Cheng JH (2017) Effect of the degree of oxidation and defects of graphene oxide on adsorption of Cu2+ from aqueous solution. Appl Surf Sci 423:1141–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Turner BF, Fein JB (2006) Protofit: a program for determining surface protonation constants from titration data. Comput Geosci 32:1344–1356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Van Doveren H, Verhoeven J (1980) XPS spectra of Ca, Sr, Ba and their oxides. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 21:265–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vipin AK, Ling S, Fugetsu B (2014) Sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate encapsulated in alginate vesicle with CNT for both cesium and strontium removal. Carbohydr Polym 111:477–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang JL, Chen C (2009) Biosorbents for heavy metals removal and their future. Biotechnol Adv 27:195–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang JL, Chen C (2014) Chitosan-based biosorbents: modification and application for biosorption of heavy metals and radionuclides. Bioresour Technol 160:129–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wang JL, Zhuang ST (2017) Removal of various pollutants from water and wastewater by modified chitosan adsorbents. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 47:2331–2386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wang JL, Zhuang ST (2019) Removal of cesium ions from aqueous solutions using various separation technologies. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 18:231–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang JL, Zhuang ST, Liu Y (2018) Metal hexacyanoferrates-based adsorbents for cesium removal. Coord Chem Rev 374:430–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wilson NR, Pandey PA, Beanland R, Young RJ, Kinloch IA, Gong L, Liu Z, Suenaga K, Rourke JP, York SJ, Sloan J (2009) Graphene oxide: structural analysis and application as a highly transparent support for electron microscopy. ACS Nano 3:2547–2556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Xing M, Wang JL (2016) Nanoscaled zero valent iron/graphene composite as an efficient adsorbent for Co(II) removal from aqueous solution. J Colloid Interface Sci 474:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Xing M, Xu LJ, Wang JL (2016) Mechanism of Co(II) adsorption by zero valent iron/graphene nanocomposite. J Hazard Mater 301:286–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Xu LJ, Wang JL (2017) The application of graphene-based materials for the removal of heavy metals and radionuclides from water and wastewater. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 47:1042–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Xu H, Li G, Li J, Chen CL, Ren XM (2016) Interaction of Th(IV) with graphene oxides: batch experiments, XPS investigation, and modeling. J Mol Liq 213:58–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yang ST, Chang YL, Wang HF, Liu GB, Chen S, Wang YW, Liu YF, Cao AN (2010) Folding/aggregation of graphene oxide and its application in Cu2+ removal. J Colloid Interface Sci 351:122–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yang SB, Wang XX, Dai SY, Wang XK, Alshomrani AS, Hayat T, Ahmad B (2015) Investigation of 90Sr(II) sorption onto graphene oxides studied by macroscopic experiments and theoretical calculations. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 308:721–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yari M, Rajabi M, Moradi O, Yari A, Asif M, Agarwal S, Gupta VK (2015) Kinetics of the adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions by graphene oxide and thiol functionalized graphene oxide. J Mol Liq 209:50–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yin YN, Wang JL, Yang XY, Li WH (2017) Removal of strontium ions by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae in magnetic chitosan microspheres. Nucl Eng Technol 49:172–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhao GX, Ren XM, Gao X, Tan XL, Li JX, Chen CL, Huang YY, Wang XK (2011) Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions on few-layered graphene oxide nanosheets. Dalton Trans 40:10945–10952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhu YH, Hu J, Wang JL (2012) Competitive adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) onto xanthate-modified magnetic chitosan. J Hazard Mater 221:155–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhu YH, Hu J, Wang JL (2014) Removal of Co2+ from radioactive wastewater by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/chitosan magnetic composite. Prog Nucl Energy 71:172–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhuang ST, Wang JL (2018) Removal of cobalt ion from aqueous solution using magnetic graphene oxide/chitosan composite. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 38:S32–S41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zhuang ST, Yin YN, Wang JL (2018) Removal of cobalt ions from aqueous solution using chitosan grafted with maleic acid by gamma radiation. Nucl Eng Technol 50:211–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhuang ST, Cheng R, Wang JL (2019) Adsorption of diclofenac from aqueous solution using UiO-66-type metal-organic frameworks. Chem Eng J 359:354–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, INETTsinghua UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental ProtectionBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Beijing Key Laboratory of Radioactive Waste Treatment, INETTsinghua UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations