Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 31, pp 31592–31608 | Cite as

Seawater intrusion and submarine groundwater discharge along the Indian coast

  • Vengadesan Manivannan
  • Lakshmanan ElangoEmail author
Review Article


Intrusion of seawater into the coastal aquifers is a major concern as it affects the quality of groundwater. The objective of this study is to delineate the extent of seawater intrusion in the Indian coast based on previous studies and estimate the area as well as locations of seawater intrusion and submarine groundwater discharge based on the groundwater level of the years 2007 and 2017. Several researchers have reported seawater intrusion in the coastal regions of India by different methods of investigation. These studies indicate that the east coast of India is affected greater than the west coast by seawater intrusion. The maximum extent (about 14 km) of seawater intrusion in India is reported in regions north of Chennai. It is estimated that around 7% of the total coastal area is affected by seawater intrusion, where groundwater is below mean sea level. Around 57% of the coastal area of India has groundwater level in the range from 0 to 10 m msl. Future research needs to focus on the areas where seawater intrusion and submarine groundwater discharge were identified based on this study.


Groundwater Seawater intrusion Mitigation Submarine groundwater discharge Coastal aquifers India 


Funding information

This work was funded by National Centre for Earth Sciences Studies, Earth System Science Organisation, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India (Grant No. NCESS/MOES/402/GIA/2019). The authors would also like to thank the Department of Science and Technology for providing the Funds for Improvement of Science and Technology infrastructure (Grant No. SR/FDT/ESI-154/2016(C))


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyAnna UniversityChennaiIndia

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