Experimental study on NOx reduction in a grapeseed oil biodiesel-fueled CI engine using nanoemulsions and SCR retrofitment

  • Praveena VedagiriEmail author
  • Leenus Jesu Martin
  • Edwin Geo Varuvel
  • Thiyagarajan Subramanian
Recent Advancements in Chemical, Environmental and Energy Engineering


Stringent emission norms impose challenges to original equipment manufacturer (OEM) in reducing diesel engine emissions. Implementing renewable fuels as alternative energy sources in diesel engines leads to increased emission levels particularly NOx. In this work, performance, combustion, and emission parameters from a diesel engine powered with grapeseed oil biodiesel (GSBD) was investigated. Nano additive emulsions of cerium oxide (CeO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) at 100 ppm each were added to grapeseed oil biodiesel. To enhance the NOx reduction task further, an advanced technology called selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system was used. With easy availability of aqueous urea, careful injection, and distribution of the reductant solution, a paradigm change was brought about in NOx reduction technology. The experiments were carried out with and without SCR for better understanding and investigation. The percentage reduction of NOx emission by adding cerium oxide and zinc oxide emulsion blends were 4.19% and 13.13%, respectively. The overall reduction in NOx emission were 74.16% and 80.06% with SCR for cerium oxide and zinc oxide emulsion blends. The research conclusions make grapeseed oil biodiesel conceivable as an effective alternate fuel for diesel engines without any engine modifications.


SCR Nanoemulsions NOx emissions Biodiesel Biomass Grapeseed oil Diesel engine 



grapeseed biodiesel


diesel oxidation catalyst


diesel particulate filter


nitrogen oxide, specifically NO and NO2


selective catalytic reduction


zinc oxide


cerium oxide


brake thermal efficiency




particulate matter


carbon monoxide


brake-specific fuel consumption


exhaust gas temperature


total hydrocarbons


unburned hydrocarbons


compression ignition


computational fluid dynamics


copper zeolite Socony Mobil 5


diesel oxidation catalyst


diesel particulate filter


non-methane hydrocarbons

AUS 32

aqueous urea solution


20% of biodiesel blended with 80% of diesel



The authors would like to thank the SRM Institution for carrying out this work under the Selective Excellence Research funding scheme.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Praveena Vedagiri
    • 1
    Email author
  • Leenus Jesu Martin
    • 2
  • Edwin Geo Varuvel
    • 2
  • Thiyagarajan Subramanian
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSRM UniversityKattankulathurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Automobile EngineeringSRM UniversityKattankulathurIndia

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