Application of progressive freezing on forward osmosis draw solute recovery

  • Huy Quang Le
  • Thi Xuan Quynh Nguyen
  • Shiao-Shing ChenEmail author
  • Chinh Cong Duong
  • Thanh Ngoc-Dan Cao
  • Hau-Ming Chang
  • Saikat Sinha Ray
  • Nguyen Cong Nguyen
Water Environmental Pollution and State of the Art Treatment Technologies


Progressive freezing is a solvent purification technology with low energy requirements and high concentration efficiency. Although these advantages make it a promising technology, the technique has never been explored for draw solution recovery for forward osmosis (FO). Hence, in this study, the progressive freezing process was used to concentrate three common diluted draw solutions: NaCl, MgCl2, and EDTA-2Na with different ice front speeds, stirring rates, and initial draw solution concentrations. Effective partition and intrinsic partition constants were also evaluated. The results reveal that the freezing process can achieve a draw solution recovery rate of 99.73%, 99.06%, and 98.65% with NaCl, MgCl2, and EDTA-2Na, respectively, using an ice front speed of 0.5 cm/h, a stirring rate of 2.62 m/s, and 30% of percentage of ice phase. Higher concentration efficiency for NaCl and MgCl2 was achieved due to the high solubility of NaCl and MgCl2 increased solute diffusion into the liquid phase solutions. The concentration factors for all three draw solutions exceeded 1.9, indicating that the draw solutes could be reused for the FO process. In addition, the two mass transfer coefficients depended on the ice front speed and the stirring rates were also obtained for scaling up the experiment in the future.


Forward osmosis Draw solution recovery Progressive freeze concentration Partition constant 


Supplementary material

11356_2019_6079_MOESM1_ESM.docx (767 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 767 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Huy Quang Le
    • 1
    • 2
  • Thi Xuan Quynh Nguyen
    • 1
  • Shiao-Shing Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chinh Cong Duong
    • 1
    • 3
  • Thanh Ngoc-Dan Cao
    • 1
    • 4
  • Hau-Ming Chang
    • 1
  • Saikat Sinha Ray
    • 1
  • Nguyen Cong Nguyen
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental Engineering and ManagementNational Taipei University of TechnologyTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Faculty of Environment and Natural ResourcesDalat UniversityDa Lat CityVietnam
  3. 3.Southern Institute of Water Resources ResearchHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  4. 4.Nguyen Tat Thanh UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam

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