The corrosion process caused by the activity of the anaerobic sporulated bacterium Clostridium celerecrescens on API XL 52 steel

  • Oswaldo Arturo Ramos MonroyEmail author
  • Nora Ruiz OrdazEmail author
  • Mónica Jazmín Hernández Gayosso
  • Cleotilde Juárez Ramírez
  • Juvencio Galíndez Mayer
Research Article


The microbial corrosion of oil and gas pipes is one of the problems occurring in the oil industry. Various mechanisms explaining microbial corrosion have been demonstrated. Commonly, biocorrosion is attributed to sulfate-reducing bacteria. Also, it has recently been reported that microbial species can connect their electron transport system to metal electrodes. In this research, two spore-forming bacteria isolated in different years from a gas pipeline were identified by biochemical techniques and by 16S rDNA amplification, sequencing, and comparison with the NCBI database. Isolates were also compared between them using molecular techniques as the restriction patterns, unique for 16S rDNA (ARDRA), and the profile of the amplified bit from the genomic DNA, using an unspecific primer (RAPD). The results obtained showed that both isolates corresponded to Clostridium celerecrescens with a 99% similarity according to the sequence reported on the NCBI database. Also, the ARDRA and RAPD electrophoretic profiles of both strains were identical, and no plasmids were found in the strains. Thus, it can be settled that this bacterium is persistent in the environment prevailing in gas pipelines. Also, it was demonstrated that the bacterial secretion of organic acids contributes to the pitting and general biocorrosion of API XL 52 steel. The rates of corrosion obtained, approximately after 40 days, were correlated with the presence and metabolic activity of C. celerecrescens on the metallic surfaces.


Biofilm API XL steel Biocorrosion Organic acids Scanning electron microscopy Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy 



The authors wish to thank to the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo for carrying ESEM and EDS studies and to the Instituto Politécnico Nacional and SNI-CONACYT for the fellowships to Ramos-Monroy, Ruiz-Ordaz, Juárez-Ramírez, and Galíndez-Mayer.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oswaldo Arturo Ramos Monroy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nora Ruiz Ordaz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mónica Jazmín Hernández Gayosso
    • 2
  • Cleotilde Juárez Ramírez
    • 1
  • Juvencio Galíndez Mayer
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias BiológicasCDMXMéxico
  2. 2.Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Grupo de CorrosiónCDMXMéxico

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