Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 27, pp 28146–28161 | Cite as

Modeling farmers’ responsible environmental attitude and behaviour: a case from Iran

  • Ahmad Yaghoubi FaraniEmail author
  • Yaser Mohammadi
  • Fatemeh Ghahremani
Research Article


There is an increasing concern over the environmental degradation caused by agricultural activities especially in developing countries which mostly linked to farmer’s behavior. Thus, this study aimed to model the responsible attitude and behavior of Iranian farmers in respect to environment. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as a basis for identification of the main determinants of the farmers’ responsible environmental behavior. A survey of 400 farmers in the Hamedan Province, selected through a multistage stratified random sampling method. Data was gathered using a questionnaire which its validity and reliability were confirmed by a panel of agricultural and environmental experts and calculated Cronbach’s alpha (0.65 ≤ α ≤ 0.80), respectively. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) to evaluate the strength of relationship between the constructs and test the overall model fit. Results of study showed that “using animal manure in the farms” was the most important behavior which farmers are responsibly doing to respect their environment but their least attention is given to “disposing cans and bottles after spraying.” Also, the fitness indices of the model revealed that the TPB partially supported the farmers’ responsible environmental behavior as perceived behavioral control and environmental attitude positively influenced the farmers’ responsible environmental behavior but there was not observed any significant influence by subjective norm. Among the additional incorporated constructs, environmental awareness, ethical commitment, and environmental concern significantly had a positive influence on farmers’ behavior by mediating role of the environmental attitude. The inclusion of new constructs in the TPB model was supported through improving the predictive power of the modified model in predicting farmers’ responsible environmental behavior.


Responsible behavior Sustainable agriculture Environmental awareness Farmers’ attitude Subjective norm Perceived behavioral control 



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of AgricultureBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamedanIran
  2. 2.Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of AgricultureBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamedanIran

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