Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 23, pp 24176–24189 | Cite as

Development of the specific emission factors for buses in Hanoi, Vietnam

  • Trung-Dung NghiemEmail author
  • Yen-Lien T. NguyenEmail author
  • Anh-Tuan Le
  • Ngoc-Dung Bui
  • Huu-Tuyen Pham
Research Article


This paper develops the specific emission factors for buses in the real-world traffic conditions in the inner city of Hanoi, Vietnam. An engine stationary cycle consisting of 14 modes was developed based on the typical driving cycle of Hanoi buses which had been constructed with the application of Markov chain theory. This is the first engine stationary emissions test cycle constructed for heavy-duty engine in Vietnam. Based on this cycle, the country-specific emission factors (CSEFs) of air pollutants including CO, HC, NOx, CO2, and PM for buses in Hanoi have been developed using the emission measurements on the engine test bed. It is found that almost all developed emission factors are higher than those derived from the emission measurements to the ECE R49 on the same engine. These emission factors, therefore, can be used to improve the quality of the emission inventory of buses in Hanoi.


Emission factor Exhaust measurement Engine dynamometer testing Engine stationary cycle Bus Hanoi 



The authors would like to thank the Japanese Ministry of the Environment for providing with the source code to transform the transient vehicle cycle into the engine transient cycle.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5634_MOESM1_ESM.docx (788 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 788 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environmental Science and TechnologyHanoi University of Science and TechnologyHanoiVietnam
  2. 2.Faculty of Transport Safety and EnvironmentUniversity of Transport and CommunicationsHanoiVietnam
  3. 3.School of Transportation EngineeringHanoi University of Science and TechnologyHanoiVietnam
  4. 4.Faculty of Information TechnologyUniversity of Transport and CommunicationsHanoiVietnam

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