Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 22, pp 22878–22891 | Cite as

Innovation and CO2 emissions: the complimentary role of eco-patent and trademark in the OECD economies

  • Claudia Nyarko MensahEmail author
  • Xingle Long
  • Lamini Dauda
  • Kofi Baah Boamah
  • Muhammad Salman
Research Article


Increasing global emissions has led to research on the role of innovations play combating emissions. Mitigations from innovation perspective have mainly been focused on the role of patent, ignoring the role of trademarks. We therefore investigate the mitigating power of patent and trademarks in the OECD economies, benchmarking patent as the traditional mitigation strategy. Examining the complimentary role, we created an interaction term between patent and trademark. Our study divided the OECD economies into four subpanels which are OECD America, OCED Asia, OECD Europe, and OECD Oceania. We employed the Im, Pesaran and Shin W-stat, Augmented Dickey-Fuller, and Phillips Perron unit root tests, as well as cross-sectional dependence and Westerlund cointegration tests for the preliminary test on the variables. We also adopted ARDL approach to cointegration, Granger causality test, and OLS in examining the relationship between CO2 and patent, trademark, urbanization, and economic growth. Findings show that jointly, eco-patents and trademarks mitigate CO2 emissions. Also, bidirectional or unidirectional causal relationship was established between our variables of study, an indication that most of our variables can be used in forecasting one other.


CO2 emissions Patent Trademark Economic growth Urbanization 



We appreciate the financial support provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of 327 China (Nos. 71603105, 71673117), the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and 328 the National Research Foundation of Korea (No. NRF-2018S1A5A2A03036952), Natural 329 Science Foundation of Jiangsu, China (No. SBK2016042936), Science Foundation of 330 Ministry of Education of China (No. 16YJC790067), and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation 331 (Nos. 2017M610051, 2018T110054).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ManagementJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Data Link InstituteTemaGhana

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