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Electrochemical determination of 4-nitrophenol in environmental water samples using porous graphitic carbon nitride-coated screen-printed electrode

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We demonstrate a facile preparation of novel oxidized graphitic carbon nitride (O-gC3N4) applied as an efficient electrocatalyst for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in environmental water samples. As-prepared O-gC3N4 were characterized by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction methods for the confirmation of different functional groups and structural phase of O-gC3N4. The surface morphology of the O-gC3N4 was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results revealed that the synthesized gC3N4 possessed acid functional groups, nanosheet with porous in nature. The O-gC3N4 was drop cast on the screen-printed electrode (SPE), and it was applied for electrochemical determination of 4-NP using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques. The O-gC3N4/SPE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards 4-NP detection. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the DPV response of O-gC3N4/SPE showed good linear range from 0.0033 to 0.313 μM with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.075 μM. The developed electrode has successfully applied for the determination of 4-NP in different environmental water samples, and the results have shown satisfied.

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The authors are thankful to Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan, for supporting the work.


The authors are thankful to the Ministry of Science and Technology-Taiwan Research Grant (107-2113-M-037-007-MY2). The study was also supported by the Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, from “The Featured Areas Research Center Program within the framework of the Higher Education Sprout Project” by the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Taiwan, and NSYSU-KMU collaboration research project (NSYSU-KMU 107-I004)-Taiwan for research grant supports.

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Correspondence to Vinoth Kumar Ponnusamy.

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Ramalingam, M., Ponnusamy, V.K. & Sangilimuthu, S.N. Electrochemical determination of 4-nitrophenol in environmental water samples using porous graphitic carbon nitride-coated screen-printed electrode. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05494-3

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  • Oxidized graphitic carbon nitride
  • Screen-printed electrode
  • Electrocatalyst
  • Electrochemical determination
  • 4-Nitrophenol
  • Water samples