Advertisement

Methane emissions responding to Azolla inoculation combined with midseason aeration and N fertilization in a double-rice cropping system

  • Ya-Dong Yang
  • He-Shui Xu
  • Deng-Yun Li
  • Jing-Na Liu
  • Jiang-Wen Nie
  • Zhao-Hai ZengEmail author
Research Article

Abstract

Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG), and paddy fields are major sources of CH4 emissions. This pot experiment was conducted to investigate the integrated effects of Azolla inoculation combined with water management and N fertilization on CH4 emissions in a double-rice cropping system of Southern China. Results indicated that midseason aeration reduced total CH4 emissions by 46.9%, 38.6%, and 42.4%, followed by N fertilization with 32.5%, 17.0%, and 29.5% and Azolla inoculation with 32.5%, 17.0%, and 29.5%, on average, during the early, late, and annual rice growing seasons, respectively. The CH4 flux peaks and total CH4 emissions observed in the late rice growing season were significantly higher than those in the early rice growing season. Additionally, CH4 fluxes correlated negatively to soil redox potential (Eh) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Azolla inoculation and N fertilization greatly increased the rice grain yields, whereas midseason aeration had distinct effects on grain yields in both rice seasons. The highest annual rice grain yields of approximately 110 g pot−1 were obtained in the Azolla inoculation and N fertilization treatments. In terms of yield-scaled CH4 emission, Azolla inoculation combined with midseason aeration and N fertilization generated the lowest yield-scaled CH4 emissions both in the early and in the late rice growing seasons, as well as during the annual rice cycle. In contrast, the highest yield-scaled CH4 emission was obtained in the treatment employed continuous flooding, without Azolla and no N application. Our results demonstrated that Azolla inoculation, midseason aeration, and N fertilization practices mitigated total CH4 emissions by 18.5–42.4% during the annual rice cycle. We recommend that the combination of Azolla inoculation, midseason aeration, and appropriate N fertilization can achieve lower CH4 emissions and yield-scaled CH4 emissions in the double-rice growing system.

Keywords

CH4 emission Rice paddy Azolla Midseason aeration N fertilization 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0300205-01). We would like to thank Bin Wang, Jianling Li, and Weiwei Cai for greenhouse gases measurements and thank the staff of farming ecological office of Institute of Soil and Fertilizer, Hunan Province, for their support in the pot experiment. Special thanks go to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments in improving this manuscript.

References

  1. Ali MA, Sattar MA, Islam MN, Inubushi K (2014) Integrated effects of organic, inorganic and biological amendments on methane emission, soil quality and rice productivity in irrigated paddy ecosystem of Bangladesh: field study of two consecutive rice growing seasons. Plant Soil 378(1–2):239–252Google Scholar
  2. Ali MA, Kim PJ, Inubushi K (2015) Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: a comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils. Sci Total Environ 529:140–148Google Scholar
  3. Aulakh MS, Wassmann R, Rennenberg H (2001) Methane emissions from rice fields: quantification, mechanisms, role of management, and mitigation options. Adv Agron 70:193–260Google Scholar
  4. Banger K, Tian H, Lu C (2012) Do nitrogen fertilizers stimulate or inhibit methane emissions from rice fields? Glob Chang Biol 18(10):3259–32679Google Scholar
  5. Belder P, Bouman BAM, Cabangon R, Lu GA, Quilang EJP, Li YH, Spiertz JHJ, Tuong TP (2004) Effect of water-saving irrigation on rice yield and water use in typical lowland conditions in Asia. Agric Water Manag 65(3):93–210Google Scholar
  6. Bharati K, Mohanty SR, Singh DP, Rao VR, Adhya TK (2000) Influence of incorporation or dual cropping of Azolla on methane emission from a flooded alluvial soil planted to rice in eastern India. Agric Ecosyst Environ 79:73–83Google Scholar
  7. Bhuvaneshwari K, Singh PK (2015) Response of nitrogen-fixing water fern Azolla biofertilization to rice crop. 3. Biotech 5:523–529Google Scholar
  8. Cai ZC, Xing GX, Yan XY, Xu H, Tsuruta H, Yagi K, Minami K (1997) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice paddy fields as affected by nitrogen fertilizers and water management. Plant Soil 196(1):7–14Google Scholar
  9. Chen GX, Huang GH, Huang B, Wu J, Yu KW, Xu H, Xue XH, Wang ZP (1995) CH4 and N2O emission from a rice field and effect of Azolla and fertilization on them Chinese. J Appl Ecol 6(4):378–382Google Scholar
  10. Chen GX, Huang GH, Huang B, Yu KW, Wu J, Xu H (1997) Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from soil-plant systems. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 49(1–3):41–45Google Scholar
  11. Chidthaisong A, Chaun N, Rossopa B, Buddaboon C, Kunuthai C, Sriphirom R, Towprayoon S, Tokida T, Padre AT, Minamikawa K (2018) Evaluating the effects of alternate wetting and drying (AWD) on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a paddy field in Thailand. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 64(1):31–38Google Scholar
  12. Cissé M, Vlek PLG (2003) Conservation of urea–N by immobilization-remobilization in a rice-Azolla intercrop. Plant Soil 250(1):95–104Google Scholar
  13. de Macale MAR, Vlek PLG (2004) The role of Azolla cover in improving the nitrogen use efficiency of lowland rice. Plant Soil 263(1–2):311–321Google Scholar
  14. Dong HB, Yao ZS, Zheng XH, Mei BL, Xie BH, Wang R, Deng J, Cui F, Zhu JG (2011) Effect of ammonium-based, non-sulfate fertilizers on CH4 emissions from a paddy field with a typical Chinese water management regime. Atmos Environ 45:1095–1101Google Scholar
  15. Dong WJ, Guo J, Xu LJ, Song ZF, Zhang J, Tang A, Zhang XJ, Leng CX, Liu YH, Wang LM, Wang LZ, Yu Y, Yang ZL, Yu YL, Meng Y, Lai YC (2018) Water regime-nitrogen fertilizer incorporation interaction: field study on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a rice agroecosystem in Harbin, China. J Environ Sci 64:289–297Google Scholar
  16. FAO (2013) Food and agriculture organization statistical database. Agricultural data available @ http://faostat3.fao.org. Access 14 September 2018
  17. Feng JF, Chen CQ, Zhang Y, Song ZW, Deng AX, Zheng CY, Zhang WJ (2013) Impacts of cropping practices on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields in China: a meta-analysis. Agric Ecosyst Environ 164:220–228Google Scholar
  18. Frolking S, Qiu JJ, Boles S, Xiao XM, Liu JY, Zhuang YH, Li CS, Qin XG (2002) Combining remote sensing and ground census data to develop new maps of the distribution of rice agriculture in China. Global Biogeochem Cy 16(4):1091–1107Google Scholar
  19. Gong ZT (2003) The soil phylogenetic classification of China. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  20. Hussain S, Peng SB, Fahad S, Khaliq A, Huang JL, Cui KH, Nie LX (2015) Rice management interventions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22(5):3342–3360Google Scholar
  21. IPCC (2007) In: Solomon S et al (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 129–234Google Scholar
  22. IPCC (2013) In: Stocker TF et al (eds) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 5–14Google Scholar
  23. Itoh M, Sudo S, Mori S, Saito H, Yoshida T, Shiratori Y, Suga S, Yoshikawa N, Suzue Y, Mizukami H, Mochida T, Yagi K (2011) Mitigation of methane emissions from paddy fields by prolonging midseason drainage. Agric Ecosyst Environ 141(3–4):359–372Google Scholar
  24. Johnson-Beebout SE, Angeles OR, Alberto MCR, Buresh RJ (2009) Simultaneous minimization of nitrous oxide and methane emission from rice paddy soils is improbable due to redox potential changes with depth in a greenhouse experiment without plants. Geoderma 149(1–2):45–53Google Scholar
  25. Kimani SM, Cheng WG, Kanno T, Nguyen-Sy T, Abe R, Zaw Oo A, Tawaraya K, Sudo S (2018) Azolla cover significantly decreased CH4 but not N2O emissions from flooding rice paddy to atmosphere. Soil Sci Plant Nut 64(1):68–76Google Scholar
  26. Kollah B, Patra AK, Mohanty SR (2016) Aquatic microphylla Azolla: a perspective paradigm for sustainable agriculture, environment and global climate change. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(5):4358–4369Google Scholar
  27. Kritee K, Nair D, Zavala-Araiza D, Proville J, Rudek J, Adhya TK, Loecke T, Esteves T, Balireddygari S, Dava O, Ram K, Abhilash SR, Madasamy M, Dokka RV, Anandaraj D, Athiyaman D, Reddy M, Ahuja R, Hamburg SP (2018) High nitrous oxide fluxes from rice indicate the need to manage water for both long- and short-term climate impacts. P Natl Acad Sci USA 111(39):9720–9725Google Scholar
  28. Krüger M, Eller G, Conrad R, Frenzel P (2002) Seasonal variation in pathways of CH4 production and in CH4 oxidation in rice fields determined by stable carbon isotopes and specific inhibitors. Glob Chang Biol 8(3):265–280Google Scholar
  29. Li XL, Yuan WP, Xu H, Cai ZC, Yagi K (2011) Effect of timing and duration of midseason aeration on CH4 and N2O emissions from irrigated lowland rice paddies in China. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 91(3):293–305Google Scholar
  30. Liang KM, Zhong XH, Huang NG, Lampayan RM, Pan JF, Tian K, Liu YZ (2016) Grain yield, water productivity and CH4 emission of irrigated rice in response to water management in South China. Agr Water Manage 163:319–331Google Scholar
  31. Linquist B, van Groenigen K, Adviento-Borbe MA, Pittelkow CM, van Kessel C (2011) An agronomic assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from major cereal crops. Glob Chang Biol 18(1):194–209Google Scholar
  32. Liu HF, Liu GH, Li Y, Wu X, Liu D, Dai XQ, Xu M, Yang FT (2016) Effects of land use conversion and fertilization on CH4 and N2O fluxes from typical hilly red soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(20):20269–20280Google Scholar
  33. Ma YC, Kong XW, Yang B, Zhang XL, Yan XY, Yang JC, Xiong ZQ (2013a) Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity of annual rice-wheat rotations with integrated soil-crop system management. Agric Ecosyst Environ 164:209–219Google Scholar
  34. Ma J, Ji Y, Zhang GB, Xu H, Yagi K (2013b) Timing of midseason aeration to reduce CH4 and N2O emissions from double rice cultivation in China. Soil Sci Plant Nut 59(1):35–45Google Scholar
  35. Minamikawa K, Fumoto T, Itoh M, Hayano M, Sudo S, Yagi K (2014) Potential of prolonged midseason drainage for reducing methane emission from rice paddies in Japan: a long-term simulation using the DNDC-Rice model. Biol Fert Soils 50(6):879–889Google Scholar
  36. Mishra S, Rath AK, Adhya TK, Rao VR, Sethunathan N (1997) Effect of continuous and alternate water regimes on methane efflux from rice under greenhouse conditions. Biol Fert Soils 24(4):399–405Google Scholar
  37. Mosier AR, Halvorson AD, Reule CA, Liu XJ (2006) Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in irrigated cropping systems in northeastern Colorado. J Environ Qual 35(4):1584–1598Google Scholar
  38. Sass RL, Fisher FM, Wang YB, Turner FT, Jund MF (1992) Methane emission from rice fields: the effect of floodwater management. Global Biogeochem Cy 6(3):249–262Google Scholar
  39. Schimel J (2000) Rice, microbes and methane. Nature 403(6768):375–377Google Scholar
  40. Shang QY, Yang XX, Gao CM, Wu PP, Liu JJ, Xu YC, Shen QR, Zou JW, Guo SW (2011) Net annual global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in Chinese double rice-cropping systems: a 3-year field measurement in long-term fertilizer experiments. Glob Chang Biol 17(6):2196–2210Google Scholar
  41. Towprayoon S, Smakgahn K, Poonkaew S (2005) Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from drained irrigated rice fields. Chemosphere 59(11):1547–1556Google Scholar
  42. van der Steen NP, Nakiboneka P, Mangalika L, Ferrer AVM, Gijzen HJ (2003) Effect of duckweed cover on greenhouse gas emissions and odour release from waste stabilisation ponds. Water Sci Technol 48(2):341–348Google Scholar
  43. van Groenigen KJ, van Kessel C, Hungate BA (2013) Increased greenhouse-gas intensity of rice production under future atmospheric conditions. Nat Clim Chang 3(3):288–291Google Scholar
  44. Vlek PLG, Diakite MY, Mueller H (1995) The role of Azolla in curbing volatilization from flooded rice systems. Fert Res 42(1–3):165–174Google Scholar
  45. Wagner GM (1997) Azolla: a review of its biology and utilization. Bot Rev 63(1):1–26Google Scholar
  46. Wang JY, Zhang XL, Xiong ZQ, Khalil MAK, Zhao X, Xie YX, Xing GX (2012) Methane emissions from a rice agroecosystem in South China: effects of water regime, straw incorporation and nitrogen fertilizer. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 93(1):103–112Google Scholar
  47. Wang C, Li SC, Lai DYF, Wang WQ, Ma YY (2015) The effect of floating vegetation on CH4 and N2O emissions from subtropical paddy fields in China. Paddy Water Environ 13(4):425–431Google Scholar
  48. Watanabe I, Ventura W, Mascariña G, Eskew DL (1989) Fate of Azolla sp. and urea nitrogen applied to wetland rice (Oryza sativa L.). Biol Fert Soils 8(2):102–110Google Scholar
  49. Wu X, Liu HF, Zheng XH, Lu F, Wang S, Li ZS, Liu GH, Fu BJ (2017) Responses of CH4 and N2O fluxes to land-use conversion and fertilization in a typical red soil region of southern China. Sci Rep 7(1):10571Google Scholar
  50. Xie BH, Zheng XH, Zhou ZX, Gu JX, Zhu B, Chen X, Shi Y, Wang YY, Zhao ZC, Liu CY, Yao ZS, Zhu JG (2010) Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on CH4 emission from rice fields: multi-site field observations. Plant Soil 326(1–2):393–401Google Scholar
  51. Xu Y, Ge JZ, Tian SY, Li SY, Nguy-Robertson AL, Zhan M, Cao CG (2015) Effects of water-saving irrigation practices and drought resistant rice variety on greenhouse gas emissions from a no-till paddy in the central lowlands of China. Sci Total Environ 505:1043–1052Google Scholar
  52. Xu HS, Zhu B, Liu JN, Li DY, Yang YD, Zhang K, Jiang Y, Hu YG, Zeng ZH (2017) Azolla planting reduces methane emission and nitrogen fertilizer application in double rice cropping system in southern China. Agron Sustain Dev 37(4):29Google Scholar
  53. Yagi K, Tsuruta H, Kanda K, Minami K (1996) Effect of water management on methane emission from a Japanese rice paddy field: automated methane monitoring. Global Biogeochem Cy 10(2):255–267Google Scholar
  54. Yao ZS, Zheng XH, Dong HB, Wang R, Mei BL, Zhu JG (2012) A 3-year record of N2O and CH4 emissions from a sandy loam paddy during rice seasons as affected by different nitrogen application rates. Agric Ecosyst Environ 152(3):1–9Google Scholar
  55. Ying Z, Boeckx P, Chen GX, Van Cleemput O (2000) Influence of Azolla on CH4 emission from rice fields. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 58(1–3):321–326Google Scholar
  56. Zhang XY, Zhang GB, Ji Y, Ma J, Xu H, Cai ZC (2012) Straw application altered CH4 emission, concentration and 13C-isotopic signature of dissolved CH4 in a rice field. Pedosphere 22(1):13–21Google Scholar
  57. Zhang FS, Chen XP, Vitousek P (2013) Chinese agriculture: an experiment for the world. Nature 497(7447):33–35Google Scholar
  58. Zheng XH, Zhou ZX, Wang YS, Zhu JG, Wang YL, Yue J, Shi Y, Kobayashi K, Inubushi K, Huang Y, Han SH, Xu ZJ, Xie BH, Butterbach-Bahl K, Yang LX (2006) Nitrogen-regulated effects of free-air CO2 enrichment on methane emissions from paddy rice fields. Glob Chang Biol 12(9):1717–1732Google Scholar
  59. Zou JW, Huang Y, Jiang JY, Zheng XH, Sass RL (2005) A 3-year field measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice paddies in China: effects of water regime, crop residue, and fertilizer application. Global Biogeochem Cy 19(2):GB2021Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ya-Dong Yang
    • 1
  • He-Shui Xu
    • 2
  • Deng-Yun Li
    • 1
  • Jing-Na Liu
    • 1
  • Jiang-Wen Nie
    • 1
  • Zhao-Hai Zeng
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Agronomy and BiotechnologyChina Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Farming System, Ministry of Agriculture of ChinaBeijingChina
  2. 2.Shanghai Academy of Agricultural SciencesShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations