Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 20, pp 20364–20376 | Cite as

Quantifying nitrate sources in a large reservoir for drinking water by using stable isotopes and a Bayesian isotope mixing model

  • Zanfang JinEmail author
  • Jiarong Cen
  • Yuming Hu
  • Linjun Li
  • Yasheng Shi
  • Guowei Fu
  • Feili LiEmail author
Research Article
  • 97 Downloads

Abstract

Drinking water reservoirs are threatened globally by anthropogenic nitrogen pollution. Hydrochemistry and isotopes were analyzed to identify spatial and temporal varieties of main nitrate sources in a large drinking water reservoir in East China. The results showed that NO3 was the main nitrogen form in both the dry and wet seasons, but dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was increased in the wet season. The δ15N-NO3 values (+ 1.3‰ to + 11.8‰) and δ18O-NO3 values (+ 2.5‰ to + 13.5‰), combined with principal component analysis (PCA), indicated that chemical fertilizer was the main nitrate source during the dry season, while chemical fertilizer, soil N, and sewage/manure were the main nitrate sources during the wet season in the Qiandao Lake area. And, the nitrate isotopes showed the significant nitrification and assimilation in the Qiandao Lake area. A Bayesian isotopic mixing model (Stable Isotope Analysis in R) was applied to the spatial and seasonal trends in the proportional contribution of four NO3 sources (chemical fertilizer (CF), soil nitrogen (SN), sewage and manure (SM), and atmospheric deposition (AD)) in the Qiandao Lake area. It was revealed that CF was the most important nitrate source in the dry season, accounting for 53.4% with 19.2% of SM and 18.9% of SN, while the contribution of SN increased in the wet season, accounting for 31.6%, followed by CF (30.8%) and then SM (24.2%). The main nitrate sources in the urban area, rural area, and central lake area were CF and SN, accounting for 66.1% in the urban area, 71.7% in the rural area, and 68.2% in the central lake area. Measures should be made to improve chemical fertilizer use efficiency and to reduce nitrogen loss in the Qiandao Lake area.

Graphical abstract

.

Keywords

Nitrate PCA Stable isotopes Bayesian isotope mixing model Reservoir 

Notes

Funding information

This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41673097 and 41373122).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5296_MOESM1_ESM.docx (58 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 58 kb)

References

  1. Bourgeois I, Savarino J, Némery J, Caillon N, Albertin S, Delbart F (2018) Atmospheric nitrate export in streams along a montane to urban gradient. Sci Total Environ 633:329–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. BS (Bureau of Statistics) (2018) Statistical Communique of 2017 National Economic and Social Development in Chunan County. http://www.qdh.gov.cn/art/2018/4/4/art_1388507_17057271.html (In Chinese)
  3. Bu HM, Somh XF, Zhang Y, Meng W (2017) Sources and fate of nitrate in Haicheng River basin in Northeast China Using stable isotopes of nitrate. Ecol Eng 98:105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Camargo JA, Alonso A (2006) Ecological and toxicological effects of inorganic nitrogen pollution in aquatic ecosystems: a global assessment. Environ Int 32(6):831–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cao Y, Sun G, Xing G, Xu H (1991) Natural abundance of 15N in main N-containing chemical fertilizers of China. Pedosphere 1(4):377–382Google Scholar
  6. Carey RO, Hochmuth GJ, Martinez CJ, Boyer TH, Dukes MD (2013) Evaluating nutrient impacts in urban watersheds: challenges and research opportunities. Environ Pollut 173:138–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Casciotti KL, Sigman DM, Hastings MG, Böhlke JK, Hilkert A (2002) Measurement of the oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate in seawater and freshwater using the denitrifier method. Anal Chem 74:4905–4912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. CCRH (Committee of Compiling Records of Hangzhou) (2017) Statistical yearbook of Hangzhou City. http://tjj.hangzhou.gov.cn/tjnj/nj2017/index.htm (in Chinese).
  9. Fathmawati FJ, Gravitiani E, Sarto HAH (2017) Nitrate in drinking water and risk of colorectal cancer in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. J Toxicol Environ Health 80(2):120–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Górski J, Dragon K, Michał P, Kaczmarek J (2019) Nitrate pollution in the Warta River (Poland) between 1958 and 2016: trends and causes. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26:2038–2046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Granger J, Sigman DM, Rohde MM, Maldonado MT, Tortell PD (2010) N and O isotope effects during nitrate assimilation by unicellular prokaryotic and eukaryotic plankton cultures. Geochimica et Cosmochim Acta 74:1030–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Guo L, Ning T, Nie L, Li Z, Lal R (2016) Interaction of deep placed controlled-release urea and water retention agent on nitrogen and water use and maize yield. Eur J Agron 75:118–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Huang M, Wang Z, Luo L, Wang S, Hui X, He G (2017) Soil testing at harvest to enhance productivity and reduce nitrate residues in dryland wheat production. Field Crops Res 212:153–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jarvie HP, Withers PJA, Bowes MJ, Palmer-Felgate EJ, Harper DM, Wasiak K (2010) Streamwater phosphorus and nitrogen across a gradient in rural-agricultural land use intensity. Agric, Ecosyst Environ 135:238–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ji X, Xie R, Hao Y, Lu J (2017) Quantitative identification of nitrate pollution sources and uncertainty analysis based on dual isotope approach in an agricultural watershed. Environ Pollut 229:586–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jin ZF, Li FL, Chen LX, Jin MT (2013) Hydrochemical and stable isotopic assessment of groundwater quality and its variations in rice-growing areas in East China. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 96:171–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jin ZF, Zheng Q, Zhu CY, Wang Y, Cen JR, Li FL (2018) Contribution of nitrate sources in surface water in multiple land use areas by combining isotopes and a Bayesian isotope mixing model. Appl Geochem 93:10–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kaiser HF (1974) An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika 39(1):31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaown D, Koh DC, Mayer B, Lee KK (2009) Identification of nitrate and sulfate sources in groundwater using dual stable isotope approaches for an agricultural area with different land use (Chuncheon, mid-eastern Korea). Agric Ecosyst Environ 132:223–231Google Scholar
  20. Kendall C, Elliott EM, Wankel SD (2008) Tracing anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen to ecosystems. In: Michener RH, Lajtha K (eds) Stable isotopes in ecology and environmental science, Second edn. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 375–449Google Scholar
  21. Knobeloch L, Salna B, Hogan A, Postle J, Anderson H (2000) Blue babies and nitrate-contaminated well water. Environ Health Perspec 108(7):675–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kong Z (2015) Investigation and analysis of fertilizer structure of different farming systems in Jiande City. J Agric 5(7):81–86 in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  23. Li D, Jiang X, Zheng B (2017) Using δ15N and δ18O signatures to evaluate nitrate sources and transformations in four inflowing rivers, north of Taihu Lake. Water 9:345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li C, Li SL, Yue FJ, Liu J, Zhong J, Yan ZF, Zhang RC, Wang ZJXS (2019) Identification of sources and transformations of nitrate in the Xijiang River using nitrate isotopes and Bayesian model. Sci Total Environ 646:801–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liu XL, Li SL, Wang ZL, Wang BL, Han GL, Wang FS, Bai L, Xiao M, Yue FJ, Liu CQ (2018) Sources and key processes controlling particulate organic nitrogen in impounded river-reservoir systems on the Maotiao River, Southwest China. Inland Waters 8(2):167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lorenzo TD, Brilli M, Tosto DD, Galassi DMP, Petitta M (2012) Nitrate source and fate at the catchment scale of the Vibrata River and aquifer (central Italy): an analysis by integrating component approaches and nitrogen isotopes. Environ Earth Sci 67:2383–2398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. LRBC (Land and Resources Bureau of Chunan) (2015) The report of land-use changes by survey and remote sensing monitor in Chunan Country. http://www.qdh.gov.cn/art/2016/3/30/art_1354775_10386615.html. (In Chinese)
  28. Lucke T, Drapper D, Hornbuckle A (2018) Urban stormwater characterisation and nitrogen composition from lot-scale catchments—new management implications. Sci Total Enviro 619–620:65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Matiatos I (2016) Nitrate source identification in groundwater of multiple land-use areas by combining isotopes and multivariate statistical analysis: a case study of Asopos basin (Central Greece). Sci Total Environ 541:802–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mayer B, Bollwerk SM, Mansfeldt T, Hütter B, Veizer J (2001) The oxygen isotope composition of nitrate generated by nitrification in acid forest floors. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65(16):2743–2756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Meghdadi A, Javar N (2018) Quantification of spatial and seasonal variations in the proportional contribution of nitrate sources using a multi-isotope approach and Bayesian isotope mixing model. Environ Pollut 235:207–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nilsson C (2009) Reservoirs. In: Likens GE (ed) Encyclopedia of inland waters. Elsevier, Academic, Oxford, pp 625–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Parnell AC, Inger R, Bearhop S, Jackson AL (2010) Source partitioning using stable isotopes: coping with too much variation. PLoS One 5(3):e9672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Peng T, Chen K, Zhan W, Lu W, Tong LJ (2015) Use of stable water isotopes to identify hydrological processes of meteoric water in montane catchments. Hydrol Process 29:4957–4967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Qiu J, Shen Z, Wei G, Wang G, Xie H, Lv G (2018) A systematic assessment of watershed-scale nonpoint source pollution during rainfall-runoff events in the Miyun reservoir watershed. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:6514–6531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rock L, Ellert BH (2007) Nitrogen-15 and oxygen-18 natural abundance of potassium chloride extractable soil nitrate using the denitrifier method. Soil Sci Soc Am J 71(2):355–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rogers KM, Nicolini E, Gauthier V (2012) Identifying source and formation altitudes of nitrates in drinking water from Réunion Island, France, using a multi-isotopic approach. J Contam Hydrol 138–139:93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sanchez DA, Szynkiewicz A, Faiia AM (2017) Determining sources of nitrate in the semi-arid Rio Grande using nitrogen and oxygen isotopes. Appl Geochem 86:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tewari K, Sato T, Abiko M, Ohtake N, Sueyoshi K, Takahashi Y (2010) Analysis of the nitrogen nutrition of soybean plants with deep placement of coated urea and lime nitrogen. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 53(6):772–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vogeler I, Blard A, Bolan N (2007) Modelling DCD effect on nitrate leaching under controlled conditions. Soil Res 45(4):310–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang H, Lu X, Li T, Yu J (1984) Main rock types and division of carboniferous in South China. J Mineral Petrol 4:71–135 in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang ZJ, Yue FJ, Zeng J, Li SL (2017) The influence of urbanization on karst rivers based on nutrient concentration and nitrate dual isotopes: an example from Southwestern China. Acta Geochimica 36(3):446–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wu JS, Jiang PK, Chang SX, Xu QF, Yang L (2010) Dissolved soil organic carbon and nitrogen were affected by conversion of native forests to plantations in subtropical China. Can J Soil Sci 90:27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Xue DM, Botte J, Baets DB, Accoe F, Nestler A, Taylor P (2009) Present limitations and future prospects of stable isotope methods for nitrate source identification in surface- and groundwater. Water Res 43:1159–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Xue DM, Baets BD, Cleemput OV, Hennessy C, Berglund M, Boeckx P (2012) Use of a Bayesian isotope mixing model to estimate proportional contributions of multiple nitrate sources in surface water. Environ Pollut 161:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yang L, Han J, Xue J, Zeng L, Shi J, Wu L (2013) Nitrate source apportionment in a subtropical watershed using Bayesian model. Sci Total Environ 463–464:340–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yang Y, Meng Z, Jiao W (2018) Hydrological and pollution processes in mining area of Fenhe River Basin in China. Environ Pollut 234:743–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yu Y, Ren L, Liu Q, Shi W, Liu G, He G (2010) Temporal and spatial distribution of nutrients and the influence factors of Lake Qiandao during 2007-2008. J Lake Sci 22(5):684–692 in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  49. Yu Q, Wang F, Li X, Yan W, Li Y, Lv S (2018) Tracking nitrate sources in the Chaohu Lake, China, using the nitrogen and oxygen isotopic approach. Environ Sci Pollut Res 3:1–12Google Scholar
  50. Yue FJ, Li SL, Liu CQ, Zhao ZQ, Ding H (2017) Tracing nitrate sources with dual isotopes and long term monitoring of nitrogen species in the Yellow River, China. Sci Rep 7(1):506–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yue FJ, Li SL, Liu CQ, Khan MGM, Naohiro Y, Sakae T, Wang SL, Shohei H, Liu XL (2018) Spatial variation of nitrogen cycling in a subtropical stratified impoundment in southwest China, elucidated by nitrous oxide isotopomer and nitrate isotopes. Inland Waters 8(2):186–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zhang H, Peng S, Zhou Y, Yuan H, Chen J (2014) Analysis of current pollutant loads and investigation of total pollutant discharge limits in Qiandao Lake. Water Resour Prot 30(4):53–56 in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhang L, Zou Z, Shan W (2017) Development of a method for comprehensive water quality forecasting and its application in Miyun reservoir of Beijing, China. J Environ Sci 56:240–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhang M, Zhi Y, Shi J, Wu L (2018a) Apportionment and uncertainty analysis of nitrate sources based on the dual isotope approach and a Bayesian isotope mixing model at the watershed scale. Sci Total Environ 639:1175–1187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhang Y, Shi P, Li F, Wei A, Song J, Ma J (2018b) Quantification of nitrate sources and fates in rivers in an irrigated agricultural area using environmental isotopes and a Bayesian isotope mixing model. Chemosphere 208:493–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhou Y, Zhang Y, Jeppesen E, Murphy KR, Shi K, Liu M (2016) Inflow rate-driven changes in the composition and dynamics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in a large drinking water lake. Water Res 100:211–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhu J, Li SL, Wang YC, Yan HY, Liao LM, Zhong J (2017) Spatial characters of nutrients in Wujiangdu Reservoir in karst river, SW China. Acta Geochimica 36(4):605–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of EnvironmentZhejiang University of TechnologyHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations