Auxinic herbicides induce oxidative stress on Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Pisces: Poeciliidae)

  • Celeste es Ruiz de Arcaute
  • Natalia A. Ossana
  • Juan Manuel Pérez-Iglesias
  • Sonia Soloneski
  • Marcelo L. LarramendyEmail author
Research Article


Pesticides might increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dicamba (DIC) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) are auxinic herbicides commonly applied in agroecosystems to control unwanted weeds. We analysed the oxidative damage exerted on the fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus by an acute exposure to DIC- and 2,4-D-based herbicides formulations Banvel® and DMA®, respectively. The Endo III- and Fpg-modified alkaline comet assay was employed for detecting DNA damage caused by oxidative stress, whereas enzymatic and non-enzymatic biomarkers such as the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and glutathione content (GSH) were used to assess antioxidant response to these two herbicides. At the DNA level, results demonstrate that both auxinic herbicides induce oxidative damage at purines level. An increase on CAT and GST activities were detected in 48 h- and 96 h-treated specimens with both auxinics. GSH content decreased in fish exposed to DIC during 48 h and to 2,4-D after 96 h of exposure. Additionally, a diminished AChE activity in specimens treated with DIC and 2,4-D was observed only after 96 h. Total protein content decreased in fish exposed to both auxinics during 96 h. These results represent the first evaluation of oxidative damage related to DIC and 2,4-D exposure on a fish species as the Neotropical freshwater teleost C. decemmaculatus.


Endo III- and Fpg-modified comet assay Catalase Glutathione Glutathione-S-transferase Acetylcholinesterase 



The authors thank Syngenta Agro S.A. (Buenos Aires, Argentina) and Dow AgroSciences Argentina S.A. (Buenos Aires, Argentina) for kindly providing the formulations Banvel® and DMA®, respectively.

Funding information

The experiments performed in the present study were supported by grants from the National University of La Plata (Grants 11/N817 and 11/N847) and the National Agency of Scientific and Technological Promotion (PICT 2015 Number 3059) from Argentina.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Celeste es Ruiz de Arcaute
    • 1
    • 2
  • Natalia A. Ossana
    • 2
    • 3
  • Juan Manuel Pérez-Iglesias
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sonia Soloneski
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marcelo L. Larramendy
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Cátedra de Citología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y MuseoUniversidad Nacional de La PlataLa PlataArgentina
  2. 2.Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)Buenos AiresArgentina
  3. 3.Programa de Ecofisiología Aplicada, Instituto de Ecología y Desarrollo Sustentable (PRODEA-INEDES)Universidad Nacional de LujanLujánArgentina

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